[Some broken windows and a travelling glazier]
This screenplay is designed to be the classical liberal or libertarian equivalent of Warren Beatty's brilliant but very leftwing movie Reds (1981) about the life of the American communist journalist John Reed (1887-1920) before and during the Russian Revolution of 1917. [See his famous account Ten Days That Shook the World (1919).]
A number of movies about ideas and revolutions have influenced my thinking about this screenplay. Films explictly about revolutions include the following:
Other films about how ideas can change the world include:
The screenplay as written (Aug. 2016) is part historical guide to the period (1843-1850), part biography of Bastiat, part history of the 1848 Revolution and the fighting on the street barricades aganst the Army, and part history of ideas of the growing liberal movement against protectionism, socialism, and bureaucratic Bonapartism. I have used the actual words of the participants in many of the speeches used in the screenplay such as meetings of the French Free Trade Association, speeches in the Chamber of Deputies in the Second Republic, the Peace Congress of Aug. 1849, and elsewhere. In any filmable version of the screenplay these of course would have to be drastically cut, but I include them here for historical purposes. [Some of them are also very good as political speeches.]
For more on this topic see my manuscript on "The Struggle against Protectionism, Socialism, and the Bureaucratic State: The Economic Thought of Gustave de Molinari, 1845-1855".
I have also tried to reconstruct the physical appearance of Paris when Bastiat went there in 1845. The three visually striking architectural structures which surrounded Paris at the time have since largely disappeared as the Paris suburbs have grown. But when Bastiat went to Paris for his May 1845 welcome by the Political Economy Society one of the newly constructed railroads would have taken him through the ring of 16 newly constructed "star shaped" forts which surounded the city for its "protection" from the British (Adolph Thiers' greatest fear); the massive military wall built by Adoplhe Thiers 1841-44 (at huge public expense and massive compulsory acquisition of private property), and the old customs wall built in the 1780s to make it easier for the private tax collectors, the Farmers General, to collect state taxes. Any attempt to film these architectoral structures would require considerable CGI resources. [See the map below of the three concentric circles of state power which surrounded Paris and restrained the free movement of its inhabitants.]
A third visual element in the film is the art of Delacroix and the political cartoons of Honoré Daumier. As visual themes or leit motifs for the film I had in my mind Delacroix's "Liberty Leading the People on the Barricdes" (1830) and Daumier's cartoon of "Gargantua" (1832) (which landed him in jail for offending the King). There can be seen below. For more details see the collection of illustrations in "Broken Windows: An Illustrated History of the Life and Works of Frédéric Bastiat."
I didn't want the film to end on a depressing note - even though it is probably the most suitable emotion to feel at the end of 1850 if you were a classical liberal in Paris - so I tried to think of a more uplifting way to end the movie. I think I found a suitable way to do so (thanks to R.C. Hoiles). Let me know what you think: Email me.
Note: the actual text of this draft of the screenplay retains the original formatting of the application used by many writers (Final Draft 9) to create screenplays for submission. Hollywood has very strict rules concerning the exact format screenplays have to be in. I'm sorry for that inconvenience. It is ugly but it seems to have evolved into the Hollywood equivalent of the QWERTY keyboard.
For additional information about Bastiat see:
[A birdseye view of Paris and its 3 concentric circles of walls and forts in 1841-44]
[Theme image of the film: Delacroix’s “Liberty Leading the People on the Barricade” (1830)]
[King Louis Philippe the “tax-eater” sitting on his throne and shitting privileges]
What follows are some thoughts about various aspects of the film as I imagined it and wrote it. As an historian I wanted to be as historically accurate (and interesting) as possoble, and to kept dramatic fabrications to a minimum.
I have spent a lot of time thinking about the visuals and images (as the supplementary document of images shows) and I think I have come across some very striking ones which would make this film about Frederic Bastiat (FB) unique. This is also available online here "Broken Windows: An Illustrated History of the Life and Works of Frédéric Bastiat.". These include:
I also have thought a lot about music from the period to accompany the film, which includes:
Because FB was involved in politics and then in a major revolution there are several big set pieces, such as:
A number of things were complete fabrications on my part part which I did for dramatic purposes:
Some other things sound as if they were made up, but did in fact happen, such as:
His Friends and Colleagues (in order of appearance)
For more biographical information see “The World of French Political Economy in which Frédéric Bastiat lived”.
[Troops taking the barricade on the rue de la Fontaine-au-Roi, 23 June 1848]
OPENING FADE IN. 1 EXT. A STREET IN PARIS NEAR THE HOTEL DES CAPUCINES - DAY1 June 22, 1848. GUNFIRE can be heard nearby as men and women run down the street towards one of the several barricades which have been thrown up across the street. Some are carrying banners with their protest slogans "We have a Right to a Job" and "Save the National Workshops" which they throw to the ground as they run. The barricades consist of paving stones, overturned carriages, broken doors, furniture and other debris all chained together. The soldiers move down the street firing at the people on the barricade and in the apartments above the street. Behind them other soldiers are setting up an ARTILLERY PIECE which they aim at the barricade. Some of the protesters run into the side streets as soldiers fire volleys of rifle fire and the occasional artillery shell which hits the barricade. The soldiers fire methodically at the people, injuring some and killing others. Men begin firing back at the soldiers from the side streets and the windows of the upper stories of the houses along the street. Some people throw furniture and stones out of the windows onto the advancing soldiers. We see FREDERIC and his assistant THOMAS (whose face we cannot see) clutching the stack of newspapers they were handing out on the street, running towards the barricade to seek shelter. Frederic is hit in the upper arm by a bullet and stumbles, dropping the newspapers, and collapses behind the barricade. As he looks at the extent of his wound he is hit in the face by flesh and blood (perhaps some brain tissue) from the person next to him who has been killed by a bullet to the head. As Frederic loses consciousness the camera pulls up vertically above him to show the street, then the suburb where the shooting has been taking place, and the neighbouring streets with all their barricades. The camera flies at increasing speed showing the city, the customs wall, the new military wall around Paris, the imposing forts outside the city, then into the countryside. CUT TO: 2 EXT. THE PYRENEES MOUNTAINS AND THE COUNTRYSIDE OF LES LANDES2 - DAY A flying camera takes us from Paris back to Mugron in the summer of 1843 showing the beauty of the French countryside. The camera flies over the Pyrénées mountains, down the Adour River towards the major port city of Bayonne with its toll gates and Customs House, and Frederic's home in the small town of Mugron and its empty town square. Then we see the sand dunes along the coast, the pine forests of the interior, the heathland with its sheep and shepherds, and the rolling hills of the vineyards. The camera zooms in to show Frederic's beautiful home in Mugron, where the story begins. FREDERIC (V.O.) So the worst has happened; you left our village. You abandoned the fields you loved, the family home in which you enjoyed such total independence, your old books which slumbered peacefully on their dusty shelves, the garden in which on our long walks we chatted endlessly about every thing under the sun, this corner of the earth that was our last refuge. None of this could keep you here. You left the village and went to Paris, to this Babylon, to this living whirlwind. DISSOLVE TO:
[Bastiat’s house in Mugron]
FADE IN. 3 EXT. BASTIAT'S HOUSE IN MUGRON AND ITS SURROUNDINGS - DAY3 At normal camera speed we see soundless shots of Frederic's house in Mugron and the peaceful economic activities which are going on around it, such as workers in his vineyards, his sharecroppers at work in the fields, SHEEP FARMERS ON STILTS tending their flocks, and boats full of goods plying the river. It does not look especially wealthy but there is some prosperity. CUT TO: 4 EXT. THE OCTROIS TOLL GATES OUTSIDE BAYONNE - DAY 4 People are lined up on foot and in their carriages outside the Customs Gate at the entrance to the town of Bayonne. Customs Officers are roughly inspecting the possessions of the people, poking them with long iron rods to find goods they will have to pay tax on. There are complaints by some of the people about the delays and the rough handling by the officers. They grumble about how much they have to pay to enter the town. Some people who can't pay the tax have their possessions confiscated. CUT TO: 5 EXT. A SMALL FARM IN THE VICINITY - DAY 5 Soldiers are going from farm house to farm house looking for men who are twenty and liable for conscription into the French army. They have a list of names of the young men they are looking for. They call at one farm to demand the appearance of a young man. He is dragged out by a soldier to the complaints of the father and tears of the mother. He is forced to join a column of other young men who are being taken to the local garrison to be inducted into the army. CUT TO: 6 EXT. A QUIET SPOT ON THE ADOUR RIVER - EVENING 6 Customs officers have spotted a smugglers' boat hiding in a bend in the Adour river. It is full of bags of contraband Spanish salt and American tobacco which they plan to sell on the black market. The officers call out for the Basque men to stop. The smugglers try to escape, the officers FIRE THEIR RIFLES killing one man, while the others escape into the fields leaving their goods behind. The officers seize the goods and we see some of them taking the salt and tobacco for their own personal use. CUT TO: 7 EXT. FREDERIC'S GARDEN - DAY 7 Frederic and his close boyhood friend and neighbour of 40 years FELIX COUDROY are walking through Frederic's beautiful garden talking about philosophy, literature, and economics which they do on a regular basis. They come to a more open part of the garden and see a small bird busily building a nest. A hawk which has been circling above the garden suddenly swoops down and seizes the bird killing it immediately. The hawk then perches on a tree branch and begins tearing the bird apart and eating it. After a pause, Felix renews the conversation. FELIX Do you think it is in our nature to kill and plunder our fellows? FREDERIC It would seem so from what I have been able to observe. FELIX Yet Adam Smith says that it is inherent in our nature to truck, barter, and exchange with each other. That is part of what makes us human. FREDERIC True. But maybe our nature is more complex. Sometimes it is easier to plunder than to produce. The two continue walking through the garden as they discuss the problem. It is a beautiful day. 8 EXT. A STREET IN MUGRON - DAY 8 An illegal march is being held in the town by socialists to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the inauguration of the Terror and the Maximum system of price controls in 1793. They hold banners with Jacobin slogans such as "Robespierre saved the Revolution!" and "Price Controls on Bread". They also have banners with slogans supporting the contemporary socialist Louis Blanc, such as "We demand the right to a job", and "The Workers must Organise to defeat the Bosses". Some locals clap the marchers, others jeer at them calling them names, such as "Bloody socialists!" "Murderers". An ANTI SOCIALIST YOUTH is especially vocal in his opposition. One of the YOUNG SOCIALISTS breaks away from the march and approaches the other youth. SOCIALIST YOUTH You damn bourgeois! ANTI-SOCIALIST YOUTH You murdering Jacobin! How many people do you plan to kill this time? The two youths scuffle and the anti-socialist youth is shoved against a SHOP WINDOW BREAKING it in a very dramatic fashion. (Note: Since there are several episodes in the film which will show windows being broken we need to come up with visually interesting and creative ways in which glass can break.] The police arrive to break up the march and arrest as many of the marchers as they can, as well as the anti-socialist youth who broke the window. The socialist youth escapes on foot. CUT TO: 9 INT. THE MAGISTRATES COURT IN THE TOWN OF MUGRON - DAY 9 Frederic begins a typical day in the local Magistrates court, which looks out over the town square, hearing minor cases. PROSECUTOR The first case concerns petty property damage to a store owned by M. Jacques Bonhomme. His shop window was broken during a scuffle between two youths. One of the youths was arrested. They other ran away. FREDERIC (addressing the youth) Is this true young man? Did you break M. Bonhomme's window? ANTI-SOCIALIST YOUTH Yes Monsieur. FREDERIC Why did you do it? ANTI-SOCIALIST YOUTH It was an accident. I was arguing with a protester and he pushed me and I fell against the window and broke it. FREDERIC What were you arguing about? It must have been a pretty violent argument. ANTI-SOCIALIST YOUTH He was a socialist who supported the Terror. I do not and we started arguing. One thing led to another ... FREDERIC I see. It is a good thing to be arguing about. Regardless of the justice of your position, a window of an innocent third party was broken and his loss has to made good. The law states I should impose either a fine or a few days in prison or working in a labour gang repairing the roads. What do you think a fitting punishment should be? ANTI-SOCIALIST YOUTH I suppose a fine because it was just a window, and there was one good thing that came out of it. The glazier made a profit installing a new window. FREDERIC Not at all! No good came out of you breaking M. Bonhomme's window. If he hadn't had to pay for a new window he might have bought a new pair of shoes. So he lost a window and wasn't able to buy a new pair of shoes, and the shoe maker lost a sale. ANTI-SOCIALIST YOUTH I suppose so ... What will you do to me? FREDERIC You owe M. Bonhomme 6 francs to cover the cost of a new window. If he is willing, I instruct you to work that off by working in his store under his supervision. Is that agreeable to you M. Bonhomme? JACQUES BONHOMME Yes it is sir. FREDERIC Good. I don't want to send a young man to prison over a minor matter like this. Let's not bother the government any more with this. Next case M. Prosecutor. CUT TO: 10 EXT. THE MARKET IN BAYONNE - DAY 10 An annual festival and market is being held in the regional centre of Bayonne. We see people playing the local instrument a celtic bagpipe; Basques are singing their mournful folk songs; shepherd youths on stilts are jousting with each; a bull fight is underway in the local arena; there is a bustling market filled with all the local produce. As a respected Justice of the Peace Frederic has been asked to judge the local smoked ham competition. He walks around the many stalls in the market which have their hams on display. He tastes the hams, talks to the vendors in their local languages (he speaks Spanish, the Gascogne dialect of French, and Basque), cracking jokes and listening to their stories. They like and respect him because he is a fair and no nonsense magistrate who has looked after their interests for over ten years. The crowd gathers to hear his final judgement. He announces the winner who is a matronly woman who comes forward to receive the prize of a small cash amount. There is a cheer as she accepts the award as she is a popular choice among the locals. At the end of the day Frederic mounts his horse and rides slowly back to his farm in Mugron savouring the warm air of the region he loves so much. 11 INT. THE OFFICE OF THE MAGISTRATE'S COURT - DAY 11 PROSECUTOR M. Bastiat, here is a revised case list for the coming week. Frederic reads it and gets angrier as he reads. FREDERIC What is this? The arrest and trial of smugglers and draft dodgers is not our business. Why are there so many? PROSECUTOR The government has issued a decree ordering us to assist with their crackdown on law breakers like smugglers, draft dodgers, and people holding political meetings. FREDERIC This is outrageous! My job is to settle local property matters and keep the peace, not enforce the government's absurd policies. PROSECUTOR There is nothing I can do. Everybody is in the same boat. The King has ordered that dissent and disobedience be eliminated before it gets out of control. FREDERIC If he keeps doing this, it will definitely get out of control. CUT TO: 12 I/E. A GOGUETTE/BAR IN MUGRON - EVENING 12 Frederic is walking home from the Court through the main street of Mugron and passes a goguette (bar) where he hears singing. He stops and enters the bar and hears a group of men singing Béranger's popular song "The Smugglers". He joins in as he knows the words. MEN IN A BAR Curse them! Curse them, the Revenue Men! Because we bring happiness and wealth, The people always toast our health. They are indeed our friends. Yes, everywhere the people are our friends. Yes, everywhere, everywhere, the people are our friends. Men busy themselves with trade But taxes bar the way. Let us through! Exchanges will be made, There will be balance, come what may. Providence protects us everywhere And asks that in return, Abundance we will share So wealth there is to earn. Curse them! Curse them, the Revenue Men! For we bring happiness and wealth! The people always toast our health. They are indeed our friends. Yes, everywhere the people are our friends. Yes, everywhere, everywhere, the people are our friends. The singing finishes and Frederic moves closer to a group of men who are arguing about politics. One is a SOCIALIST and defends the ideas of the socialist Louis Blanc. MAN IN GOGUETTE 1 So what you are saying is that the workers have to organise their own labour and not let the bosses control what they do? SOCIALIST 1 Yes. They have to oranise work rationally, not the chaos of the market we have now. And their wages should reflect the full value of the things they create. If they organise things properly there will no longer be any profits for the capitalists or interest paid to the bankers. The workers will get to keep everything for themselves. "To each according to their needs; from each according to their abilities" That's our motto. What could be fairer than that? Frederic interrupts their conversation. FREDERIC What happens to the person who puts up the money to start the business, who pays the workers before any profits are made, and who assumes the risk of the business failing? How do they get paid? SOCIALIST 1 They are parasites who should not get paid anything. Their labour contributed nothing to the final product. FREDERIC They may not do manual labour but they labour with their minds. SOCIALIST 1 What a load of nonsense! Read this! He gives Frederic and the men at his table some socialist literature, which Frederic quickly reads. FREDERIC So, who does all this organising of labour? SOCIALIST 1 Society does. Or at least the working part of society does. According to Louis Blanc. FREDERIC What if I don't want to be organised in the way M. Blanc recommends? SOCIALIST 1 We all have to do what society says is best, don't we sir? Otherwise there will be hell to pay. FREDERIC Yes, we all have to pay one way or another. POLICEMEN enter the bar shouting. LOCAL POLICEMAN Everybody out! You know it is against the law to hold political meetings. ONE OF THE MEN IN THE BAR We were just singing a song and having a drink! LOCAL POLICEMAN That's what they all say! Get your workbooks ready for inspection! The policemen manhandle the men in the bar, seize the socialist's literature, and take him and some of the other men away under arrest. They then inspect everybody's workbooks and then force the goguette to shut for the evening. CUT TO: 13 EXT. THE OCTROIS TOLL GATES OUTSIDE BAYONNE - DAY 13 Frederic is in a carriage on his way to the Council Chamber in Bayonne. He is waiting to be inspected by Customs officials who will force him to pay duty on any consumer goods he is bringing into the town. There is a long line of people ahead of him. He has a box of printed copies of the report on local tax reform he is about to present. The CUSTOMS OFFICER rifles through Frederic's possessions knocking the bundle of papers to the ground. Frederic argues with him. CUSTOMS OFFICER Anything to declare? FREDERIC No. Only my impatience. The Customs Officer notices Frederic's package of papers. CUSTOMS OFFICER Let me have a look. He leans into the carriage and begins rifling through it. CUSTOMS OFFICER (CONT'D) What this? Something to sell? FREDERIC No. They are copies of the Report I'm about to give to the General Council this afternoon. I'll be giving them away. In fact, I'll probably make a financial loss on the afternoon if that is any help to you. Unhappy with this answer, the officer carelessly knocks the papers to the ground. FREDERIC (CONT'D) Hey! Be careful! Pick them up! CUSTOMS OFFICER Pick them up yourself. He moves down the line to the next waiting carriage, while Frederic picks up his papers and goes on his way. CUT TO: 14 INT. THE GENERAL COUNCIL CHAMBER IN BAYONNE - DAY 14 Frederic is in the Council Chambers where he presents his Report on the need to lower the tax burden in the region if they are to avoid another VIOLENT UPRISING in protest. There is considerable opposition to his remarks. FREDERIC The president of the Council asked to me draw up a Report to answer the Government's request for information about reallocating the tax burden for our Department, an inquiry which is soon to begin. You have my full report in your hands. I apologise for the dirt marks. I had an altercation with a Customs Officer coming into the city. He thought this was high value contraband which I was smuggling into the town to sell. The Councillors all laugh. FREDERIC (CONT'D) As you can see, it is of low monetary value but I hope to persuade you that it might be of high political value. Let me draw your attention to the summary on page 2 of my Report. In brief I argue that the government has locked us into a tax regime which is rigid, inflexible, and 30 years out of date. It must be changed if we wish to avoid continuing economic decline and perhaps even political crisis. Our tax burden was determined decades ago when economic conditions were very different from those today. What was very profitable then is less so today, such as the wine industry, but the tax burden remains the same. The same goes for the new industries which have emerged since then, such as the pine forests. The tax burden is thus all out of kilter. Some farmers are being decimated by malnutrition, there are artisans with no work, and there are some landowners whose most bitter scrimping scarcely manages to postpone ruin. THE COUNCILLORS (From some of the Councillors) Hear! hear! FREDERIC I suggest that there are two solutions to our economic problems: the first is the freedom to trade so that we can be rewarded for producing the things for which our region is best at providing, like wine; the second is to cut taxes and make the burden more so that all producers contribute the same proportion of their income as their changing economic fortunes allow. If we do not do this we are condemned to seeing more of our farmers languish for lack of overseas sales, and our workers suffering from high prices for food and lack of employment. This cannot go on! A Council member interjects. COUNCILLOR 1 How will the government pay for all these new public works like canals, railways, and military fortifications, if we cut taxes? FREDERIC The Councillor asks an important question. Perhaps we do not need all this new expenditure on railway building and the fortifications of Paris. Private industry should pay for all railway investment and we don't need expensive military walls around our capital city. There are murmurs of disapproval from the Councillors. FREDERIC (CONT'D) If we do not lower taxes and make them fairer there will be trouble, I can assure you. Just the other day I was in a gogette... The Councillors laugh at the idea of Frederic being in a workingman's bar. FREDERIC (CONT'D) ... I was in a goguette and heard a socialist agitator calling for the workers to "organise labour" themselves. There are more murmurs of disapproval from the Councillors. FREDERIC (CONT'D) You may mutter, but the man has a point. If we do not open up our economy to more opportunities for work and employment, if we do not reduce taxes and make those few taxes which remain more fairly distributed among the people, then agitators like the one I met will be able to mount the case that it is time to change the system itself. THE COUNCILLORS No! No! FREDERIC You call yourselves Conservatives. You oppose the lowest social strata having the right to vote. In that case, be the responsible guardians of these people who are banned from participating. You do not wish to rule fairly on their behalf, nor to allow them to legally rule for themselves. What then do you want? There is just one possible end to their sufferings and this is to rise up in rebellion against the things that harm them. THE COUNCILLORS No! Never! FREDERIC If we do not reform our tax system I promise you this will happen. There will be a political explosion not seen since the last one in 1789. THE COUNCILLORS No! CUT TO: 15 INT. BASTIAT'S HOUSE IN MUGRON - DAY 15 We see Frederic's book-lined study and his desk covered with books and papers as if he were in the middle of writing something. The camera pans across the shelves showing economics book in Italian, Spanish, English, and French. We also see a print of Frederic's favourite painting by Delacroix, "LIBERTY LEADING THE PEOPLE ON THE BARRICADE" hanging prominently on his study wall. Frederic is writing at his antique desk which looks out into a beautiful garden. On his desk are some of his favourite books: a collection of Boccherini cello sonatas, a Basque grammar, Molire's plays, La Fontaine's Fables, Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations in English, Jean-Baptitste Say's Treatise on Political Economy, and Béranger's Songs. We will see these same books later again in his office in Paris. Now and again he gets up to check a reference in a book on his shelf. Sunshine streams into the room through French doors which open out onto a patio. In the distance we can see his vineyards and the curves of the Adour river. It is an idyllic scene. At one moment we see him look up to see a single bird pecking for food just outside the french doors. He gets up, goes to a small bowl of grain, and throws some to the little bird, which jumps about in excited expectation. Frederic smiles. 16 INT. BASTIAT'S HOUSE IN MUGRON - EVENING 16 Frederic's close friend Felix and some of his NEIGHBOURS have gathered for their regular meeting of "THE ACADEMY" DISCUSSION GROUP. Frederic is in the sitting room playing his cello (a Boccherini suite). The local red wine from Frederic's vineyard is being served by a Basque-speaking maid. NEIGHBOUR 1 Not a bad drop Frédéric. What year is it? Frederic puts down his cello and joins the others FREDERIC '39. NEIGHBOUR 1 Yours is better than mine. My grapes took forever to ripen. FREDERIC This year's should be as good if not a bit better. We'll see how well the sun shines. NEIGHBOUR 1 Would you like some tobacco? I just got a new delivery of American leaf. FREDERIC From whom? NEIGHBOUR 1 From my usual Basque supplier. He is very reliable. FREDERIC Was it made in Kentucky? NEIGHBOUR 1 I don't know. Does it matter? FREDERIC Yes. I refuse to smoke slave-made tobacco. So if I can, I buy Kentucky grown tobacco which is made by free labour. But smoking is starting to hurt my throat, so I'm trying to give it up for good anyway. NEIGHBOUR 1 Too bad. It is very good. FELIX Have you noticed the police crack down around the district? I saw a goguette closed down the other day in a pretty brutal manner. Quite uncalled for. NEIGHBOUR 2 They probably deserved it, singing that way about the King's government. FELIX Well, they were promised some political freedoms when the King seized power in 1830 and we helped him do that if you remember. This is what his promises have come to. FREDERIC They have trebled my work load at the Court. I now have to deal with all these police raids and arrests. It is not really my job and I am appalled by it. It will only provoke further opposition. NEIGHBOUR 2 It is better to nip it in the bud now than wait till later. FREDERIC Or it could lead to the opposite. That is what worries me. FELIX So what should the government do? FREDERIC It is not what the government should do but what the people make the government do. NEIGHBOUR 1 And what is that? FREDERIC Do what the English are doing right now with the Anti-Corn Law League. That is what I have been reading about for a couple of months. He waves his arm towards his desk piled high with books and newspapers. NEIGHBOUR 1 And that is ... ? FREDERIC Richard Cobden says the English ruling elite, the "oligarchy" he calls it, won't reform the system unless they are absolutely forced to. NEIGHBOUR 1 By whom for goodness sake? FREDERIC By the ordinary people who have been mobilised by his movement. Just the other week, they had collected hundreds of thousands of signatures calling for an end to tariffs and dumped them on the steps of Parliament House to embarrass the government into action. It was truly amazing. NEIGHBOUR 1 You don't say! The cheek! FELIX But why are they going after tariffs? How will that help them? FREDERIC Well to begin with, cheaper food for everybody, especially the poor. And besides, tariffs are the key to the economic power of the landed elites. Abolish them and you cut their heart out. We should do the same here if we want real reform of the system. NEIGHBOUR 1 The French people wouldn't stand for that. They think eliminating tariffs would expose them to foreign competition and destroy their livelihoods. FREDERIC That is what they have been taught to believe by our ruling elites, But it isn't true. They have been duped and I plan to enlighten them one day. NEIGHBOUR 2 How would free trade effect our business? Wouldn't we suffer loss of markets? FREDERIC On the contrary. The growing wealth of the English middle class would be a huge new market for our wines. Our trade hasn't expanded for decades. We should be allowed to sell to them. How else can we earn enough to pay our taxes? NEIGHBOUR 1 But if government revenue falls if we cut tariffs how do we pay for the railways, or the military? FREDERIC That is the beauty of Cobden's strategy! With free trade in place the British people will have much better relations with their neighbours, like us, and the government can drastically cut military spending, and thus eventually cut even more taxes. We then are in a virtuous circle of peace, prosperity, and lower taxes! NEIGHBOUR 1 That is crazy Frederic! Madness! We can't disarm while the British Navy rules the waves! FREDERIC And that is exactly what the British say about the French Army! Somebody has to make the first move. And it might well be Britain, if Cobden has his way. NEIGHBOUR 2 And by the look of it (gesturing to Frederic's study) you plan to help him do just that. FREDERIC Exactly. I have been researching all summer and have written a book on Cobden's strategy and how it might be applied to French conditions. He passes around copies of his manuscript. FREDERIC (CONT'D) Just listen to what he said the other day in Manchester. If this doesn't inspire you I don't know what will. Frederic grabs a copy of an English newspaper on his desk and begins to read. As Frederic reads we cut to the hall in Manchester where we see Cobden at the podium in front of several thousands people. FREDERIC (CONT'D) "Before a large crowd in Manchester the leader of the Anti-Corn Law League Richard Cobden presented this rousing conclusion to his speech which enraptured his enthusiastic audience:" FADE TO: 17 INT. A MEETING HALL IN MANCHESTER, ENGLAND - DAY 17 RICHARD COBDEN I have never taken a limited view of the object or scope of this great principle. I see in the Free trade principle that which shall act on the moral world as the principle of gravitation in the universe, drawing men together, thrusting aside the antagonism of race, and creed, and language, and uniting us in the bonds of eternal peace. I have looked even farther. I have speculated, and probably dreamt, in the dim future Ñ ay, a thousand years hence Ñ I have speculated on what the effect of the triumph of this principle may be. I believe that the effect will be to change the face of the world, so as to introduce a system of government entirely distinct from that which now prevails. I believe that the desire and the motive for large and mighty empires; for gigantic armies and great navies Ñ for those materials which are used for the destruction of life and the desolation of the rewards of labour Ñ will die away; I believe that such things will cease to be necessary, or to be used, when man becomes one family, and freely exchanges the fruits of his labour with his brother man. I believe that, if we could be allowed to reappear on this sublunary scene, we should see, at a far distant period, the governing system of this world revert to something like the municipal system; and I believe that the speculative philosopher of a thousand years hence will date the greatest revolution that ever happened in the world's history from the triumph of the principle which we have met here to advocate. FADE TO: 18 INT. BASTIAT'S HOUSE IN MUGRON - NIGHT 18 Frederic stops reading from the newspaper in order to gather his breath. NEIGHBOUR 1 He is claiming a lot for the reform of a single economic policy. FREDERIC It is not just an economic reform. It is a complete change in the way people interact with each other. NEIGHBOUR 1 Perhaps ... But it wouldn't work here. The French don't have the reformist zeal of Protestant Englishmen. FREDERIC Don't forget the English women! They are deeply involved in this as well! NEIGHBOUR 1 Goodness gracious! How appalling! FREDERIC But I don't agree. I have also been researching how free trade would change the situation here in France and I think the same things could happen here. I have written another paper which I plan to send to Paris to get published. NEIGHBOUR 2 Good luck with that. I'm not sure there are many there who would support you. FREDERIC There are a few economists in Paris who are free traders. They will be interested. I'm also going to send a copy to Cobden to see what he thinks of it. FELIX Gentlemen! Enough economics for one night. It is giving me a headache. Have some more wine. Frederic, what were you playing as we came in? Play us some more. FREDERIC No. Something more light-hearted. Frederic begins singing a song by Béranger, "The Good Yvetot" as his neighbours drink more wine, and sing along with him. FREDERIC (CONT'D) There once was a king who won no prize in our history books for ruling wise he went early to bed and was late to rise his night-cap crown was his sole disguise Rat-a-tat! Rat-a-tat! Rat-a-tat! Oh what a good little king was that! CUT TO: 19 EXT. BASTIAT'S HOUSE IN MUGRON - NIGHT 19 After his guests have gone for the evening there is a knock at the door. The Basque maid announces that one of FREDERIC'S SHARECROPPERS wants to talk to him. He is the same man we say earlier whose son was dragged away by the army recruiters. FREDERIC Good evening Pierre. What can I do for you. PIERRE THE SHARECROPPER Good evening M. Bastiat. I have come to ask for your advice and a favour. FREDERIC What can I do? PIERRE THE SHARECROPPER They took my boy yesterday. FREDERIC Who took your boy? PIERRE THE SHARECROPPER The Army. They came to the house and took him away. What can I do to get him back? We need him. FREDERIC They are cracking down on everybody right now. They have to fill their quota of recruits. Orders from Paris. Do you have enough money to pay for a substitute? What is the going rate right now? PIERRE THE SHARECROPPER Two thousand francs. I don't have that much. I have about 700 francs put aside for my daughter's dowry. I could use that. FREDERIC This is terrible Pierre. They shouldn't do this to hard working people. The Army is already too big and costly. They don't need any more farm boys. Here is what I can do. I can lend you the money and you can pay it back when you can. You have been a good tenant for me for many years. I know I can trust you. PIERRE THE SHARECROPPER Thank you M. Bastiat, thank you! CUT TO: 20 INT. BASTIAT'S HOUSE IN MUGRON - EVENING 20 A few days later Frederic has sent a message to his friend and neighbour Felix to visit him to tell him some good news. Felix enter's his study. FELIX Yes, Frederic. You wanted to see me? FREDERIC Yes, yes! They want me to come to Paris to talk to them. FELIX Who? FREDERIC The Economists. They liked the draft of my book and the research paper and want to publish them. FELIX That is excellent news Frederic. Congratulations! FREDERIC Yes. Let's have a glass to celebrate. They sit down and open a bottle of wine. FREDERIC (CONT'D) They also want me to talk to them about my plan to start a French Free Trade movement like Cobden's in England. FELIX Fantastic! Will it mean you will have to move to Paris? FREDERIC Most probably. FELIX What about your farms and your job as Justice of the Peace? FREDERIC I will have to employ a manager for the vineyard and the farms, that is not too hard to arrange. Regarding the Justice of the Peace, I have become so angry at what the government is asking me to do right now that I was close to resigning anyway. I can't in all conscience help them repress free trade and freedom of assembly, and I won't help them beef up the size of the Army. That goes against my most fundamental beliefs. I'll take a leave of absence and see what happens. FELIX As a friend, I have to tell you that this is a big move for a man your age. You are 44 after all and your health is not so good. Your cough is getting worse, I can tell. Is this really the time to be making a major change in your life? FREDERIC Perhaps not, but I think there is more I want to do outside of our little village of Mugron. As much as I like life here I think there are powerful forces at work in the world which I want to be a part of. FELIX Like the free trade movement? FREDERIC Yes! But that is not all there is to it. My researches over the past year have shown me I have some skill as a writer and I want to explore that, to see how far it might take me. Maybe I have a book about economic theory in me, like we used to talk about when we were kids. How will I find out if I don't try? FELIX It sounds like you have made up your mind already. I'll miss you Frederic, especially our little salon, the Academy on the Adour river! The scene ends with Frederic's Basque maid in the kitchen quietly singing a Basque folk song "Adios Ene Maitia" (Goodbye, My Love). MAID Adios ene maitia Adios sekŸlako Nik ez dit beste phenarik Maitia zuretako Zeren Ÿzten zŸntŸdan Hain libro bestentako Goodbye, my love Goodbye forever I have no regrets About you, my love For I left you So free for another FADE OUT.
[A Panoramic View of Paris in the 1840s]
FADE IN: 21 EXT. THE JOURNEY TO PARIS - DAY 21 May 1845. We see Frederic making the long journey from Mugron to Paris, the first leg by the traditional way by coach to Orléans, and then from Orléans to Paris by the newly built train. On the way to Orléans we see the next leg of the railway system to Bordeaux being built by navvies who are leveling the ground for the tracks and cutting through the sides of hills. As the train gets closer to Paris we see one of the ENORMOUS FORTS which have recently been completed around the city. The train then passes under the new MILITARY WALL before it reaches the inner ring of the older CUSTOMS WALLS built in the 1780s. The passengers have to disembark at one of the very recently built HUGE RAILWAY STATIONS in Paris. Their luggage is inspected by customs officers who demand payment for consumer goods which are being brought into the city. The passengers are then free to leave the station platform. CUT TO: 22 EXT. THE SAINT-LAZARE TRAIN STATION 22 Frederic is met by JOSEPH GARNIER the editor of the Journal des ƒconomistes. GARNIER Monsieur Bastiat, welcome to Paris! My name is Joseph Garnier, the new editor of the Journal des ƒconomistes. FREDERIC Good afternoon Monsieur Garnier! I'm glad to be here. GARNIER Please call me Joseph. Let me help you with your bags. Guillaumin asked me to meet you and take you to your apartment. Don't forget that there is a welcome dinner for you tomorrow night hosted by the Political Economy Society. FREDERIC Excellent, I'm looking forward to meeting everybody very much. GARNIER There is so much to talk about! Guillaumin and the other economists were very impressed with your work. They have a lot of questions to ask you. FREDERIC And I them. GARNIER By the way, if you don't mind me asking, where did you study economics? Whom did you study under? FREDERIC Nobody. I taught myself. GARNIER My goodness, how unusual. Here is our carriage. After you! Joseph opens the door to the carriage and helps Frederic aboard. 23 EXT. LES HALLES FOOD MARKET IN PARIS - DAY 23 Their coach takes them past the large Paris food market, LES HALLES, where they see all the economic activity which it takes to feed a city the size of Paris with its one million people. FREDERIC (V.O.) Here in Paris are a million human beings who would all die in a few days if supplies of all sorts did not flood into this huge metropolis. The mind boggles when it tries to assess the huge variety of objects that have to enter through its gates tomorrow if the lives of its inhabitants are not to be snuffed out in convulsions of famine, uprisings, and pillage. And in the meantime everyone is asleep, without their peaceful slumber being troubled for an instant by the thought of such a frightful prospect. On the other hand, eighty departments have worked today without being in concert and without agreement to supply Paris. How does it happen that every day what is needed and no more or less is brought to this gigantic market? What is thus the ingenious and secret power that presides over the astonishing regularity of such complicated movements, a regularity in which everyone has such blind faith, although well-being and life depend on it? This power is an absolute principle, the principle of free commerce. CUT TO: 24 INT. A RESTAURANT IN PARIS - EVENING 24 10 May 1845. The Political Economy Society is hosting a welcome dinner for Frederic. The publisher and co-founder of the Society GUILLAUMIN introduces Frederic to the other economists. All the key players are there including HORTENSE CHEUVREUX and ANNA SAY who are the wives of two of the wealthy funders of the economists's activities. When Frederic arrives his hat and coat are taken by the doorman who hangs Frederic's large and unfashionable green hat and woolen coat on a hook alongside the many, plain, black, but very fashionable hats and coats of the economists. GUILLAUMIN Ladies and Gentlemen, on your behalf I would like to welcome our newest member to the Society, M. Frédéric Bastiat, who is joining us this evening all the way from Les Landes in Gascogny. There is polite applause and shouts of "welcome" from those present. GUILLAUMIN (CONT'D) I'm sorry I wasn't at the station to greet you myself. FREDERIC Don't worry. The Customs Officer was there to greet me! GUILLAUMIN Of course he was! He welcomes everybody to Paris! There is much hilarity among the guests. GUILLAUMIN (CONT'D) As you know, we published his article on French and English tariff policy in our journal last October. Who knew there was such a talent hidden away in the provinces! Such mastery of statistics and economic theory! There are cries of "Indeed" and "Congratulations" from those present. GUILLAUMIN (CONT'D) Not only that, but he has written a book which our press will shortly publish on the strategy of the English Anti-Corn Law League. It is a very, shall I say "challenging" book, which should stir up quite a bit of controversy among us. So, with no further ado, I propose a toast to M. Bastiat. Welcome to Paris! Everyone stands and toasts "Welcome to Paris!" FREDERIC Thank you so much for your kind introduction. I would like to propose another toast, to "Peace, Prosperity, and Freedom in Our Time!" The attendees toast to "Peace, Freedom, and Freedom in Our Time". The meal begins and there is much conversation and drinking. Guillaumin introduces Frederic to members of the Society, the President CHARLES DUNOYER, ANNA AND HORACE SAY the wealthy business and financial supporter of the Economists, and the professor of economics MICHEL CHEVALIER. GUILLAUMIN Let me introduce you to some of our members. He takes Frederic by the arm and steers him towards CHARLES DUNOYER. GUILLAUMIN (CONT'D) Here is our distinguished President of the Society, Charles Dunoyer. DUNOYER Welcome to Paris Monsieur. FREDERIC Thank you. It is a real pleasure to meet the author of so many books which have profoundly influenced my thinking. DUNOYER You are too kind! FREDERIC I'm currently writing a review of your latest, "On the Liberty of Working". DUNOYER Indeed! (he does not look pleased at Frederic's effrontery) GUILLAUMIN Now you must meet Horace and Anna Say. M. Say is one of our most important supporters and his wife Anna helps run our salon. FREDERIC It's a pleasure to meet you Monsieur, Madame. GUILLAUMIN And next to them is Michel Chevalier, one of our rising stars. He was recently appointed to the chair in political economy at the Collge de France and has just been elected to the Chamber of Deputies. We are expecting a great deal of him in the future. FREDERIC It is a pleasure to meet you professor! MICHEL CHEVALIER I am pleased to meet the person who wrote that remarkable essay. We will have to talk about that when you have a moment. FREDERIC Yes, I'd love to. GUILLAUMIN Now you must meet Madame Hortense Cheuvreux. She and her husband Casimir, who can't be here tonight, are another of our important supporters. FREDERIC It's a pleasure to meet you Madame. MME CHEUVREUX The pleasure's all mine. (a certain look passes between them which suggests a more than intellectual interest in each other) I was most taken by your analysis of the British oligarchy in the introduction to your book. You seem to suggest that France too has its oligarchy which must be defanged of its powers before it does too much damage. That is an intriguing idea. We must talk about that some time when you have a moment. FREDERIC I look forward to doing that soon madame. MME CHEUVREUX You must come to one of my soirées once you have settled in. FREDERIC How delightful! MME CHEUVREUX M. Bastiat, a little bird has been whispering in my ear about the salon you used to run in Mugron, the "Academy" I think it was called? FREDERIC Yes, madame. My neighbours and I are not Plato of course, but we like to amuse ourselves from time to time with good Bordeaux wines and some stimulating conversation, MME CHEUVREUX I hear one moment you discussed economics, and the next you would play music and sing songs. How delightful! We don't have any musical economists in Paris. You must play something for us. FREDERIC It would be my pleasure. I pride myself on being quite harmonious. GUILLAUMIN Excuse me Hortense but I want to introduce M. Bastiat to our youngest members. I'm sure they will have a lot to talk about. MME CHEUVREUX Of course! We'll meet again soon, I hope M. Bastiat! FREDERIC I hope so too madame. GUILLAUMIN Here is Joseph Garnier, whom you have already met. FREDERIC Hello again Joseph! GUILLAUMIN He is the Secretary of the Political Economy Society and our new editor of the Journal des ƒconomistes. It was he, by the way, who discovered your article on French and British Tariffs and brought it to our attention. It had been languishing in the in tray for weeks before he found it. Garnier nods and Frederic nods in thanks. GUILLAUMIN (CONT'D) Next I want to introduce you to one of our youngest members of the Society, Gustave de Molinari. He is engaged in our largest research and publishing program on the history of economic thought. He is also working on a history of tariffs which should be very interesting. FREDERIC Good evening Gustave. GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI Good evening M. Bastiat. FREDERIC Please call me Frederic. GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI Of course! Frederic. To get an appreciation of the other side of life here in Paris I would suggest another kind of salon to Madame Cheuvreux's. FREDERIC Like what? GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI I and a few friends have our own salon on the rue Saint-Lazare. You should visit us one night and join the conversation. FREDERIC What do you talk about? GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI The rights of ordinary workers. The benefits of being a republic. That sort of thing. FREDERIC It sounds intriguing. I'd like to participate. Send me an invitation. GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI I will. GUILLAUMIN Excuse me gentlemen, but there is one more person I know Frederic wants to meet - our poet of liberty, BéRANGER. FREDERIC Oh, Béranger is here! How wonderful! GUILLAUMIN Yes. He made a special effort to come tonight. This way. But before I leave you, we would like to meet with you tomorrow at our office to discuss your book on Cobden and the Anti-Corn Law League. Would that be convenient? FREDERIC Yes, of course. Tomorrow then. Guillaumin takes Frederic to the other end of the table where BéRANGER is holding court among some of his admirers in the society. Frederic is introduced by Guillaumin and sits down next to Béranger. As the meal proceeds some SINGING begins at the far end of the table where Béranger is sitting. The loudest voice belongs to Frederic who gives a rowdy rendition of "The Smugglers Song". The more conservative members of the Society are not amused by his behaviour as they think Béranger is too common and crude. They sing the refrain. FREDERIC AND FRIENDS (singing very boisterously) Curse them! Curse them, the Revenue Men! For we bring happiness and wealth! The people always toast our health. They are indeed our friends. Yes, everywhere the people are our friends. Yes, everywhere, everywhere, the people are our friends. CUT TO: 25 EXT. GUILLAUMIN'S OFFICE - DAY 25 The next day Frederic meets with the inner core of the Economist group to discuss their future plans. They are in the library which is lined with all the economics books the firm publishes. The publisher Guillaumin is there, along with the economist Michel Chevalier and the editor of the Journal des ƒconomistes Joseph Garnier, and Hortense Cheuvreux the wife of the wealthy industrialist and financial supporter of the economists CASIMIR CHEUVREUX. Guillaumin's daughter FELICITY who managers the running of the firm is also present. Before the meeting begins the economists are chatting with Frederic about his choice of clothes. He is wearing a green woolen jacket, a broad brimmed hat, and riding boots. MICHEL CHEVALIER I suppose now that you are in Paris you will be wanting a good tailor to fix you up with a fashionable suit. FREDERIC Why do you say that? I like my clothes. They are very comfortable. MICHEL CHEVALIER But they look a bit too Gascogne, a bit too countrified. FREDERIC That's because I am from Gascony and proud of it. I am also a farmer, and a productive one at that. MME CHEUVREUX Leave him alone Michel. He is quite charming. He adds a dash of colour to all you black-coated economists. MICHEL CHEVALIER Sorry! (laughing) I didn't mean to offend. It is just that we don't see many Gascogne farmers around here. GUILLAUMIN Gentlemen. We can talk about the fashion of economists, or perhaps even the economics of fashion, some other time. Let me get down to the business at hand. First off, Frederic, we want to publish your book on Cobden and the League as soon as possible. Felicity, our office manager can tell us - what is the publishing schedule for that? FELICITY Page proofs are due next month and printing will take place in July. GUILLAUMIN Excellent! It should cause quite a stir. Our good friend and colleague over the channel, Richard Cobden, wrote to me saying Frederic has some very interesting ideas about strategy in that book which we should listen to closely if we want to replicate his success. So I have asked you here today to listen to what M. Bastiat has to tell us. Frederic? FREDERIC Thank you Guillaumin. I have been studying the success of Cobden's Anti-Corn Law League for a couple of years now and thinking hard about how we might apply his techniques to France. My conclusion is that you are doing it all wrong. MICHEL CHEVALIER I beg your pardon! FREDERIC You have no popular movement to put pressure on the politicians and vested interests to change things, so things will never change. The economists are rather shocked at his forthrightness. GARNIER But we have our professors, our journal, and our books. FREDERIC Who reads them? How many people belong to the Political Economy Society? GARNIER About 150. FREDERIC Out of total population of 36 million. And how many subscribers to the Journal des ƒconomistes? GARNIER About 1,000. FREDERIC Exactly! I rest my case. Do you know how many people read the magazine and the pamphlets of the Anti-Corn Law League? Tens of thousands. The economists are shocked at the figure. FREDERIC (CONT'D) Just the other day they collected hundreds of thousands of signatures for a petition to repeal the corn laws which they presented to the House of Commons. They are on course to getting legislation passed in the Commons sometime in 1846 or 1847. Where are we? Nowhere. GUILLAUMIN (very defensively) We have our strengths in academic work, such as Chevalier's chair at the College de France and Garnier's professorship at the Engineering school. Then there is the formidable publishing achievements of this firm in theoretical and applied economics. Chevalier, Garnier, and Guillaumin all nod in agreement. FREDERIC That is not enough. And furthermore, time is running out. The distortions caused by protectionism are getting worse year by year and unless we fix the problem there could well be an explosion of some sort. MICHEL CHEVALIER Explosion? What kind of explosion? FREDERIC We are seeing one take place in Ireland right now with their food shortages and massive price rises. Without free trade in food many thousands of people will die. Something similar could happen here if there is a crop failure. MICHEL CHEVALIER Possibly. FREDERIC What I propose is that we start a popular free trade movement alongside our existing academic activities and focus on that for three years. By that time we should have softened up the opposition in the Chamber and we can then force them to reform the system of tariffs. MME CHEUVREUX What would you do specifically, M. Bastiat, to begin this process? FREDERIC I would start a popular weekly magazine written for a broad audience. That means keeping technical economic language to a minimum and using well-known stories and language ordinary people can understand. I would also organise large meetings in key cities and employ speakers to present free trade ideas and debate protectionists before the public. When the politicians see how many people we are reaching they will be forced to pay more attention to us. That is when we should start lobbying them in earnest. MME CHEUVREUX That is a very ambitious plan and thus would be an expensive undertaking. FREDERIC Yes. What Cobden and the League do to offset some of those costs is to charge a small fee for their literature and they seek donations to cover costs at every meeting. You'd be surprised how much the British public is willing to give for good causes like anti-slavery and free trade. GARNIER I'm not sure the French public would be as generous. FREDERIC How do we know unless we try? GUILLAUMIN Let me get this clear. Are you putting yourself forward to organise the activities you have just outlined to us? Frederic hesitates only slightly before answering. FREDERIC Yes I am. I've studied this for years and think I am the man to do it. GUILLAUMIN Some of us have been thinking along similar lines for a while now. M. Bastiat would please excuse us for a moment? FREDERIC Of course. Frederic leaves the room to let the economists talk privately. He wanders around the Guillaumin offices looking at the books and magazines which are in production. Guillaumin fetches him after a few minutes. GUILLAUMIN M. Bastiat, would you please join us again. FREDERIC Yes. They return to the library. GUILLAUMIN Our group was very much challenged by your radical proposals for a new strategy. We were initially sharply divided but eventually reached a consensus. We think your analysis of our weaknesses and the strengths of the English Anti-Corn Law League are correct. We do need to change to meet the new challenges we now face. Therefore we have agreed to fund what you propose for a period of three years, after which we will reassess the situation. We want you to edit a weekly free trade magazine, write articles for it in the style you think most appropriate, and organise public meetings. FREDERIC That is excellent. Thank you all very much for your confidence in me. He looks around the room nodding at the economists who smile and nod back at him. FREDERIC (CONT'D) I won't let you down. Together we will defeat this economic parasite of protectionism! GUILLAUMIN We also have agreed to some logistical matters. Felicity, would you be so kind? FELICITY We will provide you with an office, pay for a personal assistant, pay you a salary plus expences, to be negotiated, and publish what you write for us. GUILLAUMIN Is that agreeable to you M. Bastiat? FREDERIC Most agreeable, thank you! GUILLAUMIN Excellent! Let's have a glass of wine to celebrate. As they are enjoying a glass of wine Hortense Cheuvreux comes up to Frederic with a twinkle in her eye. MME CHEUVREUX Congratulations Monsieur Bastiat. That was an impressive proposal you put forward. FREDERIC Thank you Madame. Guillaumin tells me you were the driving force getting them to agree to my proposal. MME CHEUVREUX I had something to do with it, but they didn't need much convincing when they understood what you were proposing. It just took a few prods of encouragement. (she smiles suggestively at Frederic) FREDERIC I just hope I can repay you for your support and confidence in me. MME CHEUVREUX Don't you worry. I'll find something. CUT TO: 26 INT. THE FREE TRADE ASSOCIATION OFFICE - DAY 26 May 1846. Frederic is working with his new assistant Thomas in an office on the second floor of a building in the rue Choiseul in central Paris. It is the HQ of the newly formed FRENCH FREE TRADE ASSOCIATION. There is a large desk in the middle of the room. Two of the walls are covered with book shelves which are only partly filled with books, there is a large window overlooking the street, and on the 4th wall hangs a map of the city showing the ring of walls and forts around the city. There are also prints of DAUMIER CARTOONS, a print of Delacroix's painting "Liberty Leading the People" from his home in Mugron, and an illustration from a book of Béranger's songs (The Smugglers). FREDERIC Well, Thomas. What do you know about economics? THOMAS Not much. FREDERIC That is fine! You'll be just like nearly every other person in France! I can use you as a sounding board for my little essays. THOMAS Yes, Monsieur. Thomas is distracted by one the pictures on the wall of Frederic's office. FREDERIC What are you looking at? THOMAS The fat man in he cartoon. FREDERIC Do you know who that is? He points to a CARTOON OF KING LOUIS PHILIPPE by Daumier which he has hanging on the wall. FREDERIC (CONT'D) That is King Louis Philippe, our beloved monarch. Thomas goes up to the cartoon to look at it more closely. He is very amused. THOMAS He looks like a big fat pear! FREDERIC Yes he does. It was drawn by Honoré Daumier. The King was so angry with him he put in prison. Do you know what happened then? THOMAS No. FREDERIC More cartoonists began drawing the King like a pear and Daumier sold even more copies of his. Eventually the King gave up trying to stop it. Goes to show how pointless censorship is. THOMAS What is that? Thomas points to the print of Delacroix's painting "Liberty Leading the People". FREDERIC That is one of my favourite paintings. It is Delacroix's "Liberty Leading the People on the Barricade". THOMAS Why do you like it? FREDERIC I played a very small part in the Revolution of 1830 and this reminds me of what we were trying to achieve. You see that man there, wearing the top hat? THOMAS Yes. FREDERIC His name is Etienne Arago and I went to school with him when I was a boy. THOMAS No! And what about her? (pointing to the figure of Liberty) Did you go to school with her too? FREDERIC No of course not! What a foolish question! She is Marianne, the symbol of France and French liberty. THOMAS Is she really leading the people or are the people leading her? FREDERIC That is a very good question Thomas. But now to work! Here is an article I want you to take to the printer. CUT TO: 27 INT. THE FREE TRADE ASSOCIATION OFFICE - DAY 27 Thomas runs up the stairs and enters Frederic's office with a large stack of the morning's newspapers. THOMAS Good morning monsieur! Here are today's papers. FREDERIC Excellent! Let's see what the Minister for Trade has to say this morning. He is always good for a laugh early in the morning! Frederic begins to read the major government daily The Moniteur. FREDERIC (CONT'D) Ah! He never disappoints. Here M. Gridaine, the Minister for Trade, tells us "it is imperative that we increase the amount of work for French workers by imposing tariffs on cheaper foreign goods". Excellent. Here is the topic for this week's article. Tell me Thomas, should we increase the amount of work done by French workers? THOMAS Yes, of course monsieur. FREDERIC Why? THOMAS So there will be more jobs for French workers to do. FREDERIC Rubbish! What if I had tied your right hand behind your back this morning before you came to the office. How long would it have taken you to bring up all those newspapers? THOMAS Twice as long monsieur because I would have had to make two trips. No! Probably a third because I would have dropped some and had to have gone back for them. FREDERIC But according to the logic of the Minister for Trade M. Gridaine the more work you and I have to do to accomplish anything, the better off we would be. So, I should tie your hand behind you back every day! In fact, the good Minister says, if we tie every French worker's hands and every French consumer's hands behind their backs the whole Nation would have more work to do and we would all be made better off! THOMAS But that would be stupid monsieur. FREDERIC Why? THOMAS Because if I had taken only one trip to bring up your papers then I could have had time to do something else for you monsieur. FREDERIC Exactly. And you said you didn't know anything about economics! I'm going to write that up and when I'm done you can take it to the printers. Molinari pokes his head into Frederic's office. GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI Frederic, I just wanted to let you know that Hippolyte Castille is holding one of his salons on the rue Saint-Lazare tomorrow night. Would you like to come? FREDERIC I would indeed! GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI Excellent! Here's the address. (he passes Frederic a piece of paper) The dress is "rustic radical" so you should fit in quite well! The two laugh. CUT TO: 28 EXT/INT. CASTILLE'S LARGE HOUSE ON RUE SAIN-LAZARE - EVENING28 Frederic walks along the majestic rue Saint-Lazare and sees the construction of the new and very LARGE SAINT-LAZARE RAILWAY STATION at the end of the street. There is great activity with coaches dropping passengers off at the station and people milling about. He comes to a stately residence which used to be the residence of the Archbishop of Paris but which is now owned by the radical journalist HIPPOLYTE CASTILLE. He enters the main door which is unlocked and unattended and climbs the stairs towards a room filled with noisy conversation. He is greeted at the door by Molinari. GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI Ah, Frederic! Good to see you. Give me your hat. He takes Frederic's large country hat and puts it on a chair by the door next to other more working class hats. GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI (CONT'D) Let me introduce you to some of the key players in our little drama! The two enter the room which reveals that it was once a luxuriously appointed room but which is now filled with cheap furniture. Marks on the wall show where paintings once hung but which is now bare. There are about a dozen people in the room drinking and conversing. There are no servants but a table with bottles of various kinds to which the guests help themselves. In one corner is Hippolyte Castille surrounded by a group of men who are dressed rather shabbily. GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI (CONT'D) Let me introduce you to our host Hippolyte. He edits the journal I write for. Perhaps he will publish some of your stuff as well. Hippolyte, let me introduce you to Frederic Bastiat, our newest find! HIPPOLYTE CASTILLE Nice to meet you Frederic! You don't look like an economist, which is a relief. (they all laugh) FREDERIC I'm not sure what an economist is supposed to look like! Tell me! HIPPOLYTE CASTILLE I suppose a bit formal and "bookish." And not rough looking around the edges. FREDERIC Ah! (he gestures to his outfit of clothes) This may seem like rough edges but they hide a much sharper edge inside. HIPPOLYTE CASTILLE The sharp edge of economic reality perhaps! FREDERIC Perhaps! Is there anything sharper than that? (they laugh) HIPPOLYTE CASTILLE We were just discussing the trial of the carpenters which is underway. I've asked Gustave to cover it for the journal and he has been sitting in on the trial every day. What is your view of the matter? Should carpenters be allowed to form their own union? FREDERIC Do you want me to answer wearing my economist's hat? HIPPOLYTE CASTILLE Of course! What other hats do you have? (they laugh) FREDERIC Many! The first point is rather obvious I think. Every person has the right to form a voluntary association to pursue their own interests, whatever they might be, so long as they are peaceful. HIPPOLYTE CASTILLE Bravo! Well said sir! But that is against the law! FREDERIC As it currently stands. HIPPOLYTE CASTILLE It was enshrined in French law during the Revolution, and it might take another revolution to change it. FREDERIC Unfortunately, it often does. HIPPOLYTE CASTILLE You should go with Gustave one day to see the trial. Hear the sort of dreadful arguments the state is putting forward to deny workers the right of free association. It is quite enlightening. FREDERIC I'd like to. Maybe I could also write something about it. HIPPOLYTE CASTILLE Excellent We might even publish it if it is any good! (they laugh) As they are talking ETIENNE ARAGO the radical playwright and old school mate of Frederic's walks up to the group. ETIENNE ARAGO Frederic, my old friend! How are you! FREDERIC Etienne! What are you doing here! ETIENNE ARAGO What am I doing here? I live here! I should be the one asking you? What dragged you out of your beloved Mugron to come to this cess pit of a Babylon? FREDERIC I've come to defeat the oligarchs who run France! ETIENNE ARAGO That's my old Frederic. Tilting at windmills again! Which set of oligarch's did you have in mind? The aristocrats, the big landowners, the manufacturers, or the army generals? FREDERIC Well, all of them actually. But to begin with just the big landowners and the manufacturers! ETIENNE ARAGO Good idea! Start small and then work your way up! FREDERIC That's the plan. First we abolish their subsidies and monopolies and tariff protection, and then we go for the jugular! ETIENNE ARAGO Bravo! FREDERIC But what are you doing Etienne? It has been so long since our school days at Sorze. ETIENNE ARAGO I have a new play coming out but we are having trouble getting permission to put it on the stage. FREDERIC Were you rude to the ruling elite? ETIENNE ARAGO Always! FREDERIC Who this time? ETIENNE ARAGO The lazy, good for nothing aristocrats who produce nothing and live off the people's hard work. The censors say I was rude to them! FREDERIC I hope it was more than just rude! ETIENNE ARAGO Of course! Possibly even revolutionary! FREDERIC Not you! Never! (they laugh) ETIENNE ARAGO So what are you doing nowadays to further the cause of the revolution? I hope you haven't given up on all our childhood dreams of changing the world! FREDERIC Now that you mention it, there are a couple of things I've been doing. ETIENNE ARAGO Do tell! FREDERIC The first is free trade. ETIENNE ARAGO Ah! You have picked up Cobden's ideas about helping the poor by lowering the cost of the bread they eat. FREDERIC Yes. But it also goes to heart of the wealth and the power of the oligarchs who own the big landed estates. ETIENNE ARAGO Yes. And the second? FREDERIC Have you heard of the penny post in England? ETIENNE ARAGO Yes, vaguely. FREDERIC Well Cobden and his friends were behind that as well. They abolished the high cost of sending a letter or newspaper through the post so that ordinary working people could afford to keep in touch with their families. ETIENNE ARAGO What a great idea! So sending letters is no longer the privilege of the elite. FREDERIC No. We should do something like that here in France. ETIENNE ARAGO Mmm. Maybe we could ... While you are here there is someone else you should meet. He is a crazy socialist who has been making waves recently. Let me introduce you to Louis Blanc. Etienne takes Frederic over to another group of people who have gathered around Louis Blanc who is lecturing them about his ideas about workers organising their own labour. LOUIS BLANC Just imagine the wealth we could have if we could get rid of the middle men, the capitalist who siphons off the profits and the bankers who suck up the surpluses by charging exorbitant interest. There are murmurs of part approval and part disapproval by the people around Blanc. ETIENNE ARAGO Pardon me Louis, but I would like to introduced to an old school mate of mine, Frederic Bastiat. He has recently arrived in Paris and is an economist. You two should hit it off like a house on fire! LOUIS BLANC How do you do M. Bastiat! An economist you say? Where do you stand on the labour question? FREDERIC How do you do Monsieur. I think I stand with you on the ultimate aim, which is allow workers to acquire the greatest amount of benefit from their own labour, but we differ on the best way to achieve that. LOUIS BLANC What do you mean? FREDERIC Well, I want to remove all the legal obstacles which lie in the way of workers starting their own business, or joining with others to make and sell things on the market. Whereas you want the state to use its powers to regulate how businesses are run and who gets to enjoy the profits created by those businesses. LOUIS BLANC That is true. We have to level the playing field first before we can permit the laissez-faire policies you and the economists are enamoured with. The state has its role and then we can allow things to play out once we have things "organised." FREDERIC Monsieur, I think that is a very naive view. Once the state has "organised" labour as you suggest why would it withdraw? Why would it ever give up any power it might hold? Far from protecting your workers from exploitation by capitalists and bankers, your state would become the universal exploiter. LOUIS BLANC I don't think so Monsieur. That is the naive view not mine. I saw how workers are treated in the iron foundries in Arras. That was brutal, absolutely brutal. We can't allow that sort of thing to continue. Once we have changed the way people think about the proper organisation of labour there will be no going back to the old days of ruthless competition, profit taking, and the exploitation of workers. We will have a completely new kind of society which will be nothing like the old one we have today. FREDERIC How will work be organised in this new society you have in mind? LOUIS BLANC The guiding principle should be "from each according to his ability, to each according to his needs." And since most workers have very similar needs, they should all be paid an equal wage. FREDERIC That sounds very naive to me. LOUIS BLANC Then Monsieur, we will have to differ on that. Good evening. Louis Blanc walks away. CUT TO: 29 INT. THE FREE TRADE ASSOCIATION OFFICE - DAY 29 We see a wagon from the printers dropping off three bundles of printed material at the Free Trade Association office. It is the new weekly newspaper of the French Free Trade Association, "The Free Trader", edited by Frederic. Thomas brings them inside and runs up the stairs to show Frederic. THOMAS Monsieur! They have arrived! FREDERIC Excellent! He takes a copy of the issue from the first pile and opens it wide. FREDERIC (CONT'D) This one is for our subscribers. I will give you their addresses and you can begin delivering them. He takes one from the second pile which is a single sheet. FREDERIC (CONT'D) This one is the flyer we will hand out in the street. We will ask for a small coin as a contribution but give it away if you have to. We want as many people as possible to read it. THOMAS What this one for? He points to the third pile of large posters. FREDERIC That is the poster we will paste up on the walls around town. Frederic takes one of the posters and pins it to the wall behind his desk. It is the statement of principles of the Free Trade Association. FREDERIC (CONT'D) This is to reminds of what we are here for. Now get going. I'll deliver the magazine to some of our bigger supporters. You take that pile of leaflets and start handing them out on the street. We see Thomas handing out flyers on the street corner to passersby. The camera zooms to show the poster on Frederic's office wall. The Association for Free Trade Declaration of Principles (10 May 1846) The Association seeks the total destruction of the protectionist régime and its replacement with a régime of FREE TRADE. The reasons for this are the following: - the right to TRADE is a natural right held by every individual, just like their natural right to own PROPERTY - to deprive an individual of the right to trade the things they have created or acquired with someone anywhere in the world is to violate this right and is thus an act of LEGAL PLUNDER and is UNJUST - interference with this right to trade jeopardizes the PEACE between nations by disrupting the relationships that unite them - governments have the right to impose low rates of tax for FISCAL reasons only, anything above this holds the community to ransom for the benefit of a SINGLE CLASS The Association will pursue its goals in a constitutional and legal manner outside of all existing political parties. It embraces the cause of eternal justice, peace, union, unfettered communication and fraternity among all peoples as CONSUMERS. We also see Frederic pinning up the first of the flyers on his office wall, "The Right Hand and the Left Hand", which over the coming months will gradually be covered by them. CUT TO: 30 EXT. A STREET IN PARIS - DAY 30 We see Thomas and some young friends with a long handled broom pasting the poster of The Declaration of Principles on walls around the city. CUT TO: 31 INT. THE FREE TRADE ASSOCIATION OFFICE - DAY 31 Frederic is at his desk reading the latest issue of the newspaper of the protectionist Association for the Defence of National Labour put out by the Mimerel Committee. FREDERIC Thomas! Here is another person who never disappoints me. He provides me with a never ending source of sophisms to refute! THOMAS Who monsieur? FREDERIC August Mimerel. He heads the Association for the Defence of National Labour. In the latest issue of their journal he has a long list of reasons why the government should increase the tariffs on imported textiles. Can you guess what things his factory produces Thomas? THOMAS Textiles, monsieur? FREDERIC Yes! What a surprise! I have an idea for our next article. Can you think of something that everyone uses every day but doesn't pay for which some powerful manufacturer would like us to pay for if they could get away with it? THOMAS The air we breathe? FREDERIC Not bad. But it would be hard to make us pay for that unless the government forced us to wear a bag over our heads. THOMAS What about sunshine? FREDERIC That might work! There are manufacturers of artificial light like lamp and candle makers who might like to get the government to grant them a monopoly. Give me a moment! Frederic begins scribbling a draft essay. CUT TO: 32 INT. A COURT ROOM IN PARIS - DAY 32 Frederic is with Molinari in a court where the trial of two Parisian carpenters is underway. They have been charged with violating the law banning the formation of an association founded with the express intention of increasing the wages or improving the working conditions of workers. The court room is half filled with workers who have come to support their colleagues. The judge is about to bring down his verdict. JUDGE We have heard testimony from both sides in this matter. There has been no dispute concerning the main points of the case. The carpenters before the bench do not dispute the fact that they intended to and in fact did successfully form an association, a "trade union" if you will, with the intention of violating the law banning such organisations. ... There is booing and jeering from some workers in the court room. JUDGE (CONT'D) Order! There will be quiet in my courtroom! There is more booing and jeering but it is more subdued. Frederic and Molinari look around the court and see the anger on the faces of the workers who realise that the case will not go their way. Molinari whispers to Frederic. GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI This is rigged! They will not be allowed to get away with this. FREDERIC Not until the law is changed. The Judge resumes his ruling. JUDGE The only defence, if you could call it that, was the argument that the law was not applied equally, that associations of business owners and manufacturers exist and that they also violate the statutes. This may be true but it is beyond the jurisdiction of this court, which is to investigate the matter before it, and only this matter. I therefore rule that the two defendants will be fined 1,000 francs each ... There is loud muttering of disapproval among the workers in the court room JUDGE (CONT'D) Quiet! And 3 months imprisonment. There are angry shouts and people stand up in protest at the ruling. JUDGE (CONT'D) Quiet! The court is adjourned! Workers in the room rush up to console their two comrades who have been convicted. Molinari and Bastiat go up with them and one of the carpenters recognises Molinari and talks to him. FIRST CARPENTER Thank you for coming M. Molinari. It is good to see a friendly face here. GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI I'm sorry things went this way. Our magazine will write a full report on it. People will know about this outrage! FIRST CARPENTER Thank you! GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI We have also raised some money in an appeal which will help pay your fine. FIRST CARPENTER Thank you Monsieur! GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI There is nothing we can do about the prison term. SECOND CARPENTER What about our families? GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI I'm sorry for you, but the state doesn't care about your families. The two carpenters are dragged out of the court room in chains by court officers. CUT TO: 33 EXT. THE STREET OUTSIDE THE FREE TRADE ASSOCIATION OFFICE -33 DAY The wagon from the printers drops off another pile of printed material for Frederic. THOMAS Here is the latest one Monsieur Bastiat! FREDERIC Excellent! He takes a copy of the latest flyer and pins it to the growing collection on the wall behind his desk. The title is "PETITION OF THE MAKERS OF CANDLES" He begins to read it out loud in an exaggerated and mocking manner, and as he does so he keeps pointing his finger to the sky. FREDERIC (CONT'D) "Petition of the manufacturers of tallow candles, wax candles, lamps, candlesticks, street lamps, snuffers, extinguishers and producers of tallow, oil, resin, alcohol, and in general everything that relates to lighting. To Honorable Members of the Chamber of Deputies. We are suffering from the intolerable competition of a foreign rival whose situation with regard to the production of light, it appears, is so far superior to ours that it is flooding our national market at a price that is astonishingly low for, as soon as he comes on the scene, our sales cease, all consumers go to him, and a sector of French industry whose ramifications are countless is suddenly afflicted with total stagnation." He pauses at the end and asks: FREDERIC (CONT'D) Do you know this will end Thomas? THOMAS I can guess monsieur. FREDERIC What? THOMAS They want the government to ban sunlight so they can have increased sales of their candles. FREDERIC Exactly. Get your friends and start handing this one out. It should cause a bit of amusement. We see Thomas and friends handing it out on the street. They call out "Read about how the Protectionists want to tax our sunlight"! People stop, read it quickly, laugh, and then go about their business. CUT TO: 34 INT. HORTENSE CHEUVREUX'S SALON - EVENING 34 Frederic attends Madame HORTENSE CHEUVREUX'S SALON for the first time. It is in a luxurious home in the centre of Paris and it is attended by the cream of the liberal minded cultural and political elites. He is welcomed in the foyer by Madame Cheuvreux. MME CHEUVREUX M. Bastiat! Welcome! I'm so glad you could come. FREDERIC My pleasure Madame! MME CHEUVREUX There are so many people I want you to meet. Where to begin? I know, Mlle. Jenny Lind is about to sing one of the songs from Verdi's new opera, "The Robbers." You'll love it. She has been the talk of London recently. She rushes him to one of the many rooms in the house where people have gathered. In this room the Swedish opera sensation JENNY LIND has just started SINGING AN ARIA from "The Robbers" "Tu del mio Carlo al seno" (Blessed spirit, you have flown to the bosom of my Carlo) in which Amalia sings of her love for Carlo who has joined a robber band which is terrorising the countryside. She is in her mid 20s and is very attractive and flirtatious. After she has finished singing Hortense introduces her to Frederic. MME CHEUVREUX (CONT'D) Mlle. Lind, I want you to meet a friend of mine the economist Frederic Bastiat. JENNY LIND How nice to meet you. I've never met an economist before. How did you like the song? FREDERIC I enjoyed it very much. It deals with an interesting subject, how to deal with members of one's own family who have turned to criminality. JENNY LIND Indeed! I've heard some people say that you economists sometimes defend criminality. FREDERIC How so? JENNY LIND By defending smugglers who break the law by selling contraband tobacco for example. FREDERIC Well, not exactly! We criticise the law which prevents people freely trading across the border. It is this bad law which turns peaceful traders into criminals. They commit no real crime. There is no victim who is injured. JENNY LIND Isn't the state the victim because it misses out on getting its taxes? FREDERIC No. I would say the real victim is the consumer who is forced to pay too much for his tobacco. JENNY LIND A curious way to see things! FREDERIC Perhaps M. Verdi will write an opera one day about smugglers instead of robbers. I'm sure you would sing that just as delightfully! Frederic begins humming the refrain from Beranger's song "The Smugglers". FREDERIC (CONT'D) "Curse them, curse them, the revenue men ..." JENNY LIND What is that you are singing? FREDERIC A song I know about smugglers. JENNY LIND Curiouser and curiouser. A friend told me that you have also written about my voice in one of your theoretical articles. Is that correct? FREDERIC Yes. Mlle. Lind. JENNY LIND Tell me why an economist would be interested in my voice? FREDERIC Probably not just your voice Mlle.! (she smiles at him appreciatively) But your voice particularly because of its rarity and the service it provides to others. JENNY LIND What on earth do you mean by "service"? FREDERIC You provide the person who pays for a ticket to one of your concerts the service of being delightfully entertained for an evening. People are wiling to pay for that service ... JENNY LIND And other services too I can imagine! FREDERIC Yes, quite. (he laughs) But the rarer and the more beautiful the voice the more they are willing to pay for that service. It is quite simple really. JENNY LIND For you perhaps, M. Bastiat! FREDERIC No really! The service I might provide others by singing my song about smugglers is much less valuable than you singing your song about robbers. No one wants to hear my feeble voice. If they paid to hear me sing I would be guilty of robbing them of the opportunity of hearing yours. But lots of people are wiling to pay to hear you, regardless of the content of the song. So you can rightly charge what the market will bear to do that. JENNY LIND And what if I used my voice to sing your song about smugglers? FREDERIC That would double the value of your service I'm sure Madame. I for one would pay a lot of money to hear it! JENNY LIND And it wouldn't be contraband, would it? FREDERIC No Mlle. Lind! JENNY LIND M. Bastiat, we will have to talk again sometime about such intriguing topics. In the meantime, send me a copy of your smugglers song. I'm intrigued! FREDERIC It would be my pleasure. Mme Cheuvreux has become a little anxious about all the attention Lind has been paying Frederic and decides to break up their conversation. She comes up to Frederic to introduce him to the mathematician and astronomer FRANOIS ARAGO who is in the adjoining room. MME CHEUVREUX Isn't she delightful? FREDERIC Very! (a bit too enthusiastically) MME CHEUVREUX Let me take you to Franois Arago. He has been asking about you. How do you know him? FREDERIC I went to school with his younger brother Etienne a long time ago and we still keep in touch. They come to a small drawing room where FRANOIS ARAGO is talking to a group of people. FRANOIS ARAGO To answer your question madame, we are building a number of new telescopes for the Paris Observatory in order to track the movement of these comets which we believe have a regular, periodic obits around the sun. Ah. I see Frederic has arrived! Excuse me a moment. Good evening Frederic. It has been a long time. FREDERIC Yes, indeed it has. I saw Etienne a few days ago. I see he is in trouble again. FRANOIS ARAGO In trouble as usual. He has written a play denouncing the Aristocrats for not working productively like everybody else. He says all their chateaux should be turned into factories and they should take their turn working on the machines. For some reason, this has annoyed the censors. They won't let him put it on stage. FREDERIC That's typical. So what will he do? FRANOIS ARAGO He has been giving private readings of it. What are you up to Frederic? FREDERIC I've been working on trying to calculate the economic impact government policies have on various kinds of economic activity. Things like the impact that tariffs have on the way people spend or don't spend their money. How it diverts spending from one good to another and what this flow on effect does to production in general. FRANOIS ARAGO Interesting. FREDERIC But I am stuck on the mathematics of it all. FRANOIS ARAGO Neither you nor Etienne were very good at maths as I recall. Too busy writing poetry and playing the cello. FREDERIC Maybe so! But I would like your help on figuring out how to calculate the sum of effects as they diminish in size over an infinite number of iterations. FRANOIS ARAGO That sounds pretty straight forward. When you have some free time come and visit me at the Observatory and I'll show you around. FREDERIC Thanks. I'll do that! He moves around the mansion taking in all the luxury of the paintings and furnishings and the sophisticated conversations of the guests. He comes across a group of people talking to the catholic priest and philosopher JOSEPH GRATRY. Frederic listens in. JOSEPH GRATRY The problem is that reason has been seized by liberal sophists and used against the Church in a way which is both damaging and false. It is our task to refute these sophists and rescue the Church from this anarchy of words which are being hurled at it. I see one of those sophists has just entered the room. Good evening M. Bastiat. FREDERIC M. Gratry. You misinterpret my work. I am a debunker of sophisms, not a disseminator of sophisms myself. JOSEPH GRATRY What sophisms do you debunk then, monsieur? FREDERIC The lies and half-truths which the rich and powerful tell the people in order to confuse them and so more easily take their money. JOSEPH GRATRY That would be a noble mission monsieur, if you limited your debunking to the sophisms of the powerful manufacturers and landowners, or to the sophisms of the wicked socialists who are corrupting our workers. But you go too far when you attack the so called "theocratic sophisms" of the Church as you did in a recent essay. FREDERIC I apply the same economic reasoning to exposing the wealthy landowner who claims he is helping the poor when he forces them to pay more for food, as I do to the priest who makes fraudulent claims about the afterlife and forces the poor to hand over a tithe to the Church in order to secure a spot in Heaven. Both are forms of plunder in my view. JOSEPH GRATRY Then that is what I call false reasoning because these two things are entirely different in their essence. FREDERIC I disagree. In their essence they are the same. They both use the power of the state to force people to hand over their money against their will. They are both acts of plunder and they are justified by sophistical arguments. JOSEPH GRATRY Nonsense! FREDERIC The main difference is that the landowners and manufacturers have only been plundering the people for a couple of hundred years. The Church has been doing it for over a thousand years and is thus much more experienced in duping the people with false arguments. JOSEPH GRATRY I see there is no possibility of me changing your mind on this topic? FREDERIC I seriously doubt it. JOSEPH GRATRY Then good evening monsieur. FREDERIC Good evening. Frederic walks about the mansion admiring the paintings and fine furniture. Each room he passes has a different conversation underway and walks past several looking for an interesting one to join. He comes across a room where the historian and political theorist ALEXIS DE TOCQUEVILLE is holding forth about his views of democracy in America. Frederic enters the room. TOCQUEVILLE So you see madame, it is not a matter of whether or not I personally like democracy, it is a question of what do we do given its inevitable triumph, at least in the short to medium term. Ah, I see Monsieur Bastiat has joined us. He has been causing some excitement among our economist friends recently. What say you sir? FREDERIC I'm afraid I haven't been to America sir, so I'm not sure my opinion would be worth much. TOCQUEVILLE Possibly, but you have taken quite an interest in the spread of democracy in England and the impact it is having on their economic policies, isn't that true? FREDERIC Yes. But the two cases are quite different. The is no ruling elite or oligarchy in America, outside of the slave owning south, so the people there do not have that battle to fight. There is only half a democracy in England at the moment so they have not yet been able to get rid of their ruling oligarchy. It is only a matter of time before they do, in my opinion. TOCQUEVILLE Yes, but my point is that whether in America or England the people can't be trusted with political power because they are not educated sufficiently to use it wisely. They are too fickle and emotional. FREDERIC Whereas the ruling and presumably educated elites in France and elsewhere in Europe do rule wisely and justly? I'm sure we can all find examples to the contrary, of unjust and unwise rule by elites. Like serfdom, protectionism, conscription. I could go on. TOCQUEVILLE Of course, but when change comes it must come slowly and in an orderly fashion otherwise things can get out of control, as we only know too well in France. FREDERIC I agree. But if change is too slow it can also lead to things getting out of control. TOCQUEVILLE Interesting. So you are like Goldilocks then. Change can't be too hot or too cold, but has to be just right. How amusing! FREDERIC Not quite, sir. I think I prefer my change to be on the hot side. TOCQUEVILLE Ah! Spoken like a true southerner! Frederic and Tocqueville continue arguing and bantering in this vein for some time until Frederic excuses himself and decides to leave the Cheuvreux's home after an eventful evening. CUT TO: 35 EXT. THE KING'S PALACE - DAY 35 August 1846. Frederic and Thomas are standing on a street corner not far from the TUILERIES PALACE which is the residence of KING LOUIS PHILIPPE. They have been handing out a leaflet with the title "The Kings must Disarm". People are gathering to watch a BIG MILITARY PARADE in the palace grounds to mark the 16th anniversary of his coronation in August 1830 and the completion of the new military wall which has been built around Paris. We see THE KING standing on a balcony over the parade ground acknowledging his elite troops as they march past in formation. The people are not very enthusiastic when someone calls for a cheer for the King. We next see the King getting into an elaborate carriage which drives off in the direction of THE MILITARY WALL WHICH SURROUNDS PARIS. As it approaches the wall it pulls off onto the access road which runs along the inside of the wall for its entire length of 33 km (20 miles). Along the top of the wall soldiers in full dress uniform are lined up 1 metre apart from each other as far as the eye can see. As the King's carriage approaches they present arms and shout "VIVE LE ROI" (Long live the King). The camera follows the King's carriage for several miles showing the enormous size of the wall and its massive fortifications. As the crowd disperses we see Frederic and Thomas resume their work handing out leaflets. Thomas says something to Frederic in a whisper. THOMAS He really does look like a big fat pear! (they both laugh) CUT TO: 36 INT. THE FREE TRADE ASSOCIATION OFFICE - DAY 36 A few weeks later. Gustave is in the office to talk to Frederic about advertising posters for the upcoming public meeting of the Free Trade Association. Frederic has bought another DAUMIER PRINT and is hanging it on the wall behind his desk alongside the other Daumier print. THOMAS What is this one about monsieur? FREDERIC Have a closer look and tell me what you see. THOMAS The pear King is sitting on a sort of throne in front of the National Assembly building. FREDERIC Look more closely. Is it really a throne? THOMAS Mmm... It looks a bit like a toilet. FREDERIC Yes. And what is he eating? THOMAS People are throwing money into baskets and some other people are lifting them up and pouring the money into his month. FREDERIC Yes. The people are paying their taxes and he is a tax-eater or a budget-eater. What is coming out of the bottom of the "throne"? THOMAS Pieces of paper. FREDERIC Look more closely! THOMAS (he peers more closely at the print) It says "Government Subsidy" and the other says "Monopoly Privilege". That's funny. Did Daumier go to jail for that one too? FREDERIC Yes. But not for very long. Molinari has come over to Frederic's desk. GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI I hate to interrupt these scatological reflections on monarchical economic practices but we need to discuss the advertising for the meeting at Montesquieu Hall. FREDERIC Yes, of course. They pour over a draft of the BIG POSTER for the Meeting. CUT TO: 37 EXT. A STREET IN PARIS - DAY 37 Thomas is with some friends PASTING UP POSTERS advertising the first big public meeting of the Free Trade Association in Paris. They walk past a wall where they had put up posters earlier in they day. They have been TORN DOWN and are hanging in strips off the wall. They replace them with new ones and continue on their way. CUT TO: 38 INT. THE MONTESQUIEU HALL IN PARIS - EVENING 38 September 1846. The Hall is a large 2,000 PERSON CAPACITY concert hall which is also used for public gatherings. It is rapidly filling up. The entrance and foyer have many tables filled with Free Trade Association literature, such as books and pamphlets written by Frederic and others. Thomas is at the entrance handing out leaflets to the people coming into the hall. A large poster at the entrance lists the program of speakers for the evening's event: the President of the Association the DUKE OF HARCOURT, the economist Michel Chevalier, the poet and liberal politician ALPHONSE LAMARTINE, Frederic, and a working class printer M. PEUPIN. The front of the Hall is decorated with a large banner with the slogan of the FREE TRADE ASSOCIATION written on it "Let us live our lives at the lowest possible prices," "We should pay taxes only to the state," "Goods are bought with other goods." The front few rows have been cordoned off for members of the aristocracy and senior politicians. The cheap seats on the mezzanine level are also filling up with ordinary people many of who are working class. The Duke of Harcourt rises and walks to the lectern. DUC D'HARCOURT Distinguished visitors, Ladies and Gentlemen, fellow citizens! Welcome to this historic moment when the French Free Trade movement is formally launched. A cheer goes up from about half the people in the Hall. DUC D'HARCOURT (CONT'D) We believe this is a movement that can and will change France for ever. It will usher in new opportunities for prosperity for all classes and will lessen the antagonisms which have been building up between nations as a result of the pernicious policy of protectionism. We have an outstanding group of speakers for you this evening. Let us begin with some words from one of the leading economists in France, Professor Michel Chevalier from the Collge de France. There is moderate applause from the crowd who are not sure what to expect. MICHEL CHEVALIER Thank you! There is so much an economist could say about the many positive effects free trade has on our prosperity. For example, there is the benefit of the spread of an international division of labour when nations get to specialise in producing what they do best, the spreading of risk in times of a poor harvest, such as the Irish are now experiencing, as regions where there is plenty can export their surpluses to places which have shortages. I could go on with some more examples, but I won't. There is some laughter from the audience who are relieved he promises not to lecture them on economics for much longer. MICHEL CHEVALIER (CONT'D) But tonight I want to focus on one aspect which many of you may not have thought about before. That is the undeniable fact that all of us are both consumers AND producers. We all work at something, therefore we are producers. We have or produce something which we sell to others, even if is just our labour. On the other hand, we are all consumers. We buy things others have produced such as our food, our clothing, or our housing. Not one of us is just a consumer or just a producer. We are all consumers and as consumers, free trade is our best friend because it ensures that everything we consume will be available at the lowest possible price. We can live, as our colleague Lamartine has put it so well, (he points to the banner above his head) "la vie ˆ bon marché", let us live our lives at the lowest possible prices. Our protectionist opponents argue that as producers living in France we should all be in favour of tariffs which raise the prices of the goods we produce, but they forget that we are all consumers and not all of us work in industries which can get the government to raise the prices of the things we produce. So, outside of a few tens of thousands of privileged workers and business owners, we, the other 36 million citizens of France, have to pay higher prices for everything we consume. This is economic madness and it is unjust! There is a loud cheer from the audience at his closing remarks. DUC D'HARCOURT Thank you professor Chevalier. Our next speaker is perhaps our favourite living poet, Alphonse Lamartine. A very loud cheer and great applause fills the Hall as Lamartine approaches the lectern. LAMARTINE Thank you my friends! I am very happy to be here tonight to add my name to the growing list of those who are urging a radical change in our economic policy from the backwardness which is protectionism to the new and progressive policy of international free trade. I have no head for numbers, this "algebra of political economy," The audience laughs. LAMARTINE (CONT'D) ... about which those scholars like Monsieur Chevalier are far more knowledgeable. Instead I want to talk to you tonight about the moral dimension which lies behind free trade, that aspect of free trade which first made it attractive to me. I remember sitting one day on the benches in the National Assembly, listening to some boring speech on tariff policy. There is an ironic cheer from some members of the audience who share his dim view of economics. LAMARTINE (CONT'D) When I for the first time took a close look at the legislation which governs our policy of tariffs. It can be found in this book. He holds up the heavy 400 page volume which contains the legislation governing French tariff policy. LAMARTINE (CONT'D) This enormous, immense, infinite, confused, irrational volume, this apocalypse of the protectionist system, regulates every single aspect of our economic life, from the oil from the smallest oil seed up to the oil we get from the largest whale, from the steel in the tiniest needle used for sowing lace up to the largest ship's mast in our merchant fleet. It tries to regulate every single aspect of our national economic life, and to do this it requires a virtual army of tens of thousands of bureaucrats and tax collectors who push and prod their way through our bags at every border we cross, and force us to fill out endless forms when we pay our taxes or government fees. The people of France are being crushed by this bureaucratic burden. It must end! Let the next revolution, the revolution of free trade, begin and sweep all away this before it crushes our very soul! Another loud cheer goes up and the applause lasts for several minutes. DUC D'HARCOURT Our next speaker is Monsieur Frederic Bastiat, the Secretary of the Free Trade Association and a Member of the Institute. There is only polite applause as the audience does not know him. FREDERIC Ladies and Gentlemen, when I first came to Paris from my native Gascony I visited your lovely Botanic Gardens. I had heard about the monkey cage and wanted to see it because I had never seen monkeys before. In my part of the world we have bulls of course, which some people fight in rings, which is as good as any place I suppose, if you must fight bulls. There is some laughter from people in the Hall. FREDERIC (CONT'D) We also have Basque smugglers who come over the Spanish border to sell contraband tobacco, and they get shot at by Customs officers, which makes it a dangerous sport like bull fighting, at least for the smugglers There is more laughter as people begin to warm to him. FREDERIC (CONT'D) But here, in Paris, I wanted to see the monkeys. I visited them, at feeding time. Each monkey was in a separate cage, and I watched as their keepers pushed a bowl of food into their cage through a little door. You might think as I did at first that each of the monkeys would eat what had been given to him. But this does not happen. You see them all putting their arms through the bars of the cage next to theirs, trying to steal each other's share. There are cries, grimaces, and contortions, in the middle of which some of the bowls are overturned and a lot of food gets spoilt and wasted. Occasionally, one of the larger and wiser monkeys learns to push his bowl into the centre of his cage where the other monkeys can't reach it, and then goes about stealing the food of the monkeys on either side of his cage. This happens every day at feeding time and the net result is an enormous loss of food for the group of monkeys as a whole. The audience has grown quiet and there are looks of puzzlement on many people's faces. FREDERIC (CONT'D) So, you might ask, why I am telling you this story? Perhaps a simple man from the provinces has lost his mind at the Botanical Gardens. But watching this, it occurred to me that this is a perfect example of what the protectionist regime does to us, as French producers and consumers. Some people in the audience see the joke and begin to laugh. FREDERIC (CONT'D) It turns us into mutual plunderers, because we seek special privileges like tariffs so we can plunder the food bowls of our neighbours. But what we don't realise is that our neighbours are doing the same to us, trying to get special privileges from the state so they can plunder us in turn. The net result is that we are like the monkeys in the cages where all the bowls get overturned and spoilt. We have to put an end to this madness! There is much laughter and applause from the audience as they get the joke. FREDERIC (CONT'D) Only under a regime of free trade can we have the largest bowl of food possible and the peace and freedom to enjoy it without having our greedy neighbours try to steal it out of our mouths. A heckler calls out from the crowd: HECKLER 1 That is all very well for a bunch of monkeys, but what about real workers like me? FREDERIC The gentleman obviously doesn't like being compared to a monkey! or a mutual plunderer! (the crowd laughs with Frederic) But you raise a good point Monsieur. Frederic turns to the Duke of Harcourt. FREDERIC (CONT'D) With your permission sir, perhaps we should invite our final speaker to the platform to give the PERSPECTIVE OF A WORKER. M. Peupin is a printer by trade. Monsieur! PEUPIIN Thank you Monsieur Bastiat. As he said I am a printer by trade. I have steady work about 10 months a year and on the days I work I can earn between 3 and 4 francs a day, which isn't bad. I can't complain. But what I do complain about is that when you add it all up, all the extra costs caused by tariffs and other subsidies to some favoured producers, on things like cereals for bread, or coal for heating my home, textiles for my children's clothes, or iron for the tools of my trade, I figure it comes to about 75 centimes per day. That is about 25% of my day's income. In my opinion, this is tyrannical, unjust, and immoral. There is a loud cheer from the audience and Peupin becomes more confident when he realises the crowd is on his side. PEUPIIN (CONT'D) It is tyrannical because it forces me to buy things from one person rather than another person of my choice; it is unjust because it levies a tax on me for the benefit of another class, and it immoral because it makes me pay more for everyday essentials. That is why I am a supporter of a policy of free trade! There is loud applause and cheering, and the evening gradually comes to a close. We see people filling out of the hall taking literature with them as they leave. We see the HECKLER arguing loudly and angrily with Thomas and some of the other free traders at the back of the Hall as people leave. CUT TO: 39 INT. GUILLAUMIN'S OFFICE - EVENING 39 A RECEPTION is underway at the Guillaumin firm's offices to celebrate the completion of several important publishing ventures. There is a large crowd of people, the new titles are spread out on tables, wine and food are being served, and there is a lot of noisy conversation taking place. Guillaumin bangs his wine glass with a fork to get people's attention. GUILLAUMIN Ladies and gentlemen, if I could have your attention please. Thank you. Tonight we want to celebrate a very successful few months in the publishing activities of the Guillaumin firm. You can see spread out before on the tables our most recent books. There is Gustave de Molinari's marvellous two volume work on the History of Tariffs. The crowd claps and this is acknowledged by Gustave de Molinari. GUILLAUMIN (CONT'D) Our multi-volume collection of classics of economic thought is drawing to close with the appearance of works by Malthus, Ricardo, and the Physiocrats. (more applause but less enthusiastic) And our best selling title at the moment, Frederic Bastiat's Economic Sophisms. (the crowd applauds very enthusiastically with a couple of cheers as well) This is a collection of the short essays he has written over the past year or so debunking the myths and false thinking of the protectionists and the socialists. They are some of the cleverest and most amusing pieces of economic writing I have ever read. They certainly appeal to an audience we have not tried to appeal to before, that is people who are new to economic ways of thinking about problems. He tells me he has enough for another volume which we look forward to publishing in the near future. Frederic would you like to say a few words? FREDERIC Thank you Guillaumin for those kind words. Ladies and gentlemen we stand at a cusp of history which could turn us in one of two different directions. We could go down the path the English have taken with Cobden's mass free trade movement which looks very close to achieving victory. This is the path towards prosperity and freedom. Or we could be half-hearted in our support for free trade and stay where we are now. This is the path to more economic stagnation and social discontent. We have had some promising signs that more French people are becoming interested in our ideas. We have had some large public meetings in Bordeaux and Paris which give us some hope. The very good sales of the volume of Economic Sophisms is another good sign. We will know fairly soon which path France will ultimately take. Thank you all for your support and encouragement. There is very strong applause and the guests begin to mill about. People come up to Frederic to shake his hand. Hortense comes up to Frederic with a big smile on her face. MME CHEUVREUX I'm so pleased for you Frederic! Your book is selling so well. She kisses him on the cheek for the first time. FREDERIC Thank you madame. (he is taken a little aback) MME CHEUVREUX Please call me Hortense. FREDERIC Hortense! MME CHEUVREUX I do hope you will come to our salon again soon. I got many, shall we say, interesting comments after your last visit! FREDERIC I'd be delighted to. MME CHEUVREUX Excellent! In the meantime, would you sign my copy. Frederic signs her copy and we see what he has written, "To dear Hortense, FROM A GRATEFUL ADMIRER, Frederic". CUT TO: 40 INT. A RESTAURANT IN PARIS - NIGHT 40 Richard Cobden's Anti-Corn Law League was successful in finally getting the protectionist Corn Laws repealed in June 1846 after 8 years of intense and sometimes acrimonious political agitation. He has embarked on a celebratory tour of Europe over the summer of 1846 which brings him to Paris in August where he is feted by a banquet hosted by the Political Economy Society. Present are the Duke of Harcourt, the president of the French Free Trade Association, Guillaumin, Horace Say the vice-president of the Society, Casimir and Hortense Cheuvreux, Michel Chevalier, Frederic Bastiat, Molinari, and others. SAY It is my very great honour to welcome Mr. Richard Cobden, the indefatigable opponent of trade restrictions, to Paris. Sir, you and your League have shown us the way we Frenchmen and women must now follow. Your tenacity and skill have shaken the remnants of feudalism in England to its very core. No longer will the landed elites be able to steal the very bread from the mouths of the working poor! No longer will nations be at each others throats to get access to markets! You sir, have let the free trade genii out of the bottle and the old regime will never be able to put it back in again! I ask all of you to join with me in toasting our esteemed visitor. To Richard Cobden and to the sacred principle of free trade! All the guests rise to the feet and toast Cobden lustily. RICHARD COBDEN M. Say, you are too kind! In response, let me say it is not I who have shown you Frenchmen the way. Both our great countries have produced economists and politicians who have argued and agitated for free trade. Last century your M. Turgot and our Adam Smith were pioneers in this endeavour. Earlier this century, your own father, Jean Baptiste Say is one of the giants of the free trade movement. Thus one can never say that free trade is only an English phenomenon. It is a world phenomenon! An obviously emotional Guillaumin rises to his feet to give another impromptu toast. GUILLAUMIN To free trade throughout the world! The guests all say "Hear! Hear!" RICHARD COBDEN But friends, let me give you a word of advice from an old war horse in the battle. The battle you now face as you ramp up your movement will not be easy. Adam Smith wrote his great treatise the Wealth of Nations attacking the mercantilist system of trade restrictions and subsidies exactly 70 year ago this very year. It has taken us that long to achieve our success. If you recall, in that book Smith himself was very pessimistic about achieving victory. The powers of the oligarchy which controlled the British state seemed too strong to budge, but we were able to overcome that powerful entrenched resistance by mobilizing the English people. You will have to do the same. The oligarchy will lie about the benefits they personally receive and will tell the people that trade restrictions are in their interests. These dreadful and pernicious sophisms will have to combatted. In times of crisis - and there will be times of acute crisis - the people will lose heart and resist any changes to the system they know. You will have to persuade them otherwise. But I think that you are in good hands. When I look around the room I see many reasons to be confident about the future of free trade it France. As he looks around the room he focuses on Guillaumin, the Cheuvreux's and Horace Say, Chevalier, Molinari, and Bastiat. RICHARD COBDEN (CONT'D) I see the great organiser and intellectual entrepreneur Guillaumin; I see those who raise the money to fund this great cause, (he indicates Cheuvreux and Say) You have scholars in the university like Chevalier, young scholars writing the sordid history of tariffs, (he indicates Molinari) And you have a more recent find in M. Bastiat whose skill as a writer should not be underestimated. I remember getting from him out of the blue a couple of years ago an extraordinary manuscript which analysed the strategy and theory behind the Anti-Corn Law League which I myself was not able to articulate. If such genius can arise out of the furthest removed province of France, there is great hope for our movement in the future. So, it my turn to toast you, ladies and gentlemen, "To the great future of freedom in France!" The guests rise to their feet and respond to the toast. Frederic's colleagues are clapping him on the back and congratulating for what Cobden has just said. Hortense sits at a table in the corner and smiles. 41 EXT. A STREET IN PARIS - DAY 41 May 1847. We see a BAKER doubling the price of bread in his shop window. A bad harvest has led to a shortage of flour and much higher bread prices. A crowd of people begin to gather in the street outside the bakery. One of these is the heckler we saw at the Montesquieu Hall meeting. PERSON OUTSIDE BAKERY 1 This is outrageous! How can I afford to feed my family at these prices? PERSON OUTSIDE BAKERY 2 I tell you! It is the hoarders of grain who are profiting off our backs. This happens every time there is a poor harvest. PERSON OUTSIDE BAKERY 3 No. It's these free traders. She points to wall posters outside the bakery announcing the next pubic meeting of the Free Trade Association. PERSON OUTSIDE BAKERY 2 They want our farmers to sell wheat abroad if they can get higher prices. PERSON OUTSIDE BAKERY 1 The bastards! He begins to tear down the poster and is joined by others. BAKER What are you doing? Leave that alone. PERSON OUTSIDE BAKERY 2 We are not paying those high prices for our bread. That is immoral! BAKER It is not my fault. I have to buy my flour at the market like everybody else. PERSON OUTSIDE BAKERY 1 Sell us bread at the old prices! BAKER No I can't and I won't! PERSON OUTSIDE BAKERY 3 Then we will! The crowd pushes forward into the shop taking the bread they want. A scuffle break out, some items in the shop window are knocked and THE WINDOW BREAKS. BAKER Get out of my shop! PERSON OUTSIDE BAKERY 2 We are only taking what is ours by right. She throws down some coins on the shop counter, takes her bread, and storms out of the shop. The others do the same. CUT TO: 42 INT. THE FREE TRADE ASSOCIATION OFFICE - DAY 42 A few days later. Gustave de Molinari is in the office talking to Frederic when Thomas enters. THOMAS Here are the morning papers Monsieur! FREDERIC Thank you Thomas. (turning to Gustave) Here is a report on that food riot. GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI It looks like they are getting more frequent. FREDERIC I can't say I blame them. Prices are nearly double what they were last year and wages certainly haven't gone up. GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI But it is so stupid to blame the bakers. It is not their fault that the government won't let in wheat from Odessa. That market is booming and we could be buying cheaply from them at the moment. They won't even allow in surplus wheat from the south because of the stupid zonal system. Getting a permit takes forever anyway. FREDERIC Well, we have been telling them that for months now. GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI Perhaps we should use stronger language. Take a leaf out of the socialists' book. They denounce making a profit as an act of exploitation on the part of the business owner; they say charging interest on a loan is nothing but plunder. And damn it, Proudhon says that property itself is theft! FREDERIC I've been moving towards that myself but I'm not sure if it is right rhetorically speaking. GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI What do you mean? FREDERIC I mean my strategy has been to use gentle mockery and satire not outright name calling. GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI Perhaps its time to change before things get out of hand. Why not call a spade a spade? FREDERIC I wrote this a while ago but haven't used it. He pulls an article out of his desk drawer. FREDERIC (CONT'D) Take a look. He hands Gustave an essay entitled "Theft by Subsidy". Gustave reads it and chuckles. FREDERIC (CONT'D) I thought you would find that amusing. THOMAS What is he laughing at Monsieur? GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI Frederic knows how much I like Molire's plays and he makes fun of one here. Can you read Latin? He gives the essay to Thomas to read, showing him the passage. GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI (CONT'D) It is from "The Hypochondriac". I'll give you a clue. He hates doctors. He thinks they are quacks. THOMAS (reading the Latin with some difficulty) "Ego, cum isto boneto Venerabili et doctor, Don tibi et concedo Virtutem et puissanciam, Medicandi, Purgandi, Seignandi, Perandi, Taillandi, Coupandi, Et occidendi Impune per total terram." Thomas pauses after the effort of reading it. THOMAS (CONT'D) What the hell does that mean? GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI The medical students have to promise to do this if they want to become real doctors: "I give and grant you Power and authority to Practice medicine, Purge, Bleed, Stab, Hack, Slash, and Kill with impunity throughout the whole world." THOMAS No, he doesn't like doctors much does he? GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI He hates doctors about as much as Frederic hates customs officials. Read what comes next. In Frederic's story this is what trainee customs officers have to promise to do if they want to became professional customs collectors. He points to the next passage which Thomas reads. THOMAS "Dono tibi et concedo, Virtutem et puissantiam, Volandi, Pillandi, Derobandi, Filoutandi, Et escroquandi, Impune per totam istam Viam" GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI And what does that mean? Thomas puts his hand over his heart and puffs out his chest as if he were making a pledge of honour. THOMAS "I give to you and I grant virtue and power to steal, to plunder, to filch, to swindle, to defraud, at will, along this whole road." He pauses for breath. THOMAS (CONT'D) (laughing) I like it better in Latin! Thomas grabs a FIRE POKER which was lying next to the fire and begins to act like the customs officers he had seen at the octroi gates searching for contraband in travellers luggage. He thrusts the poker in time to the words THOMAS (CONT'D) "Volandi, Pillandi, Derobandi, Filoutandi, escroquandi". Gustave and Frederic both burst out laughing. GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI Frederic, you should write some more like this. I like the harsh and direct language! FREDERIC Yes, but will the politicians accept it? That is the question. CUT TO: 43 INT. A COMMITTEE ROOM IN THE NATIONAL ASSSEMBLY - DAY 43 Summer 1847. Frederic is part of a delegation of economists who will meet with the PRIME MINISTER THIERS and the MINISTER FOR TRADE GRIDAINE and their senior officials to discuss trade reform. With Frederic is Michel Chevalier and Horace Say both of whom are Deputies in the Chamber. They have a bundle of documents to show the Ministers. They enter the PALAIS BOURBON which houses the Chamber of Deputies and enter a luxurious committee room where the Ministers and their staff are waiting. In a corner of the room is a large marble bust of Cardinal Richelieu, the Chief Minister of Louis XIII and the architect of the centralised French state. PRIME MINISTER THIERS Gentlemen, please come in. This is the Minister for Trade M. Gridaine and these are some of his senior staff. MICHEL CHEVALIER Prime Minister! Let me introduce M. Frederic Bastiat, the secretary of the Free Trade Association, and Deputy Horace Say. PRIME MINISTER THIERS Gentlemen. A pleasure. Please be seated. I have granted you this opportunity to present your case for trade reform because several Deputies have suggested it to me, including your two colleagues, but they are not alone. We have been following with great interest what has been happening across the channel regarding their experiment in liberalisation and we would like to know what options we face in this country. Please begin. MICHEL CHEVALIER Prime Minister, we have broken down the argument into the following parts. I will provide an estimate of the reductions in government income over five years if we cut the tariff to 10% or even 5% on all the major products which are currently taxed, such as beef, coal, textiles, sugar, and so on. We also have figures on the impact of an across the board abolition of all tariffs. The politicians are visible disturbed by this idea. MICHEL CHEVALIER (CONT'D) Here is a table of figures of our estimates. He hands Thiers, Gridaine, and the officials the first document. MICHEL CHEVALIER (CONT'D) Deputy Say will discuss the impact of a reduction in tariffs and taxes on the standard of living of ordinary working people. A summary of his estimates are in this document. He hands out another document to the politicians. MICHEL CHEVALIER (CONT'D) And to conclude, M. Bastiat will discuss the impact of these cuts on French industry as a whole, both those protected by tariffs and subsidies and those which are not. His analysis might surprise you because he looks behind what is immediately apparent to the most affected industries, that is a loss of income in the short term, and looks at the longer term and less easily seen consequences of an economy wide lowering of costs and the expansion of international markets which we believe will be the consequences of a cut in tariffs. In the even longer term, there might even be an increase in tax revenue caused by an overall expansion of the national economy. But this of course is not our intention but merely an unintended consequence of liberalistaion. He hands out Frederic's paper to the ministers. They discuss the free traders proposals for some time before PM Thiers calls the meeting to a close. PRIME MINISTER THIERS Before we close the meeting, are there any final comments you would like to make? M. Bastiat? FREDERIC Yes. One more thing Prime Minister. Even if you find our economic analysis inadequate, could I draw to your intention the dire political circumstances the nation now finds itself in. In my view, unless taxes and tariffs on basic foodstuffs are cut there will be more food riots like the ones we have seen recently over the rising price of bread. They could get out of control one day and cause havoc. Surely, the security of the regime itself might then come under threat. PRIME MINISTER THIERS M. Bastiat, I'm sure our security forces can keep a few bread rioters under control. Thank you all very much for coming and presenting your case. It was most interesting. As the free traders leave the Committee Room they see waiting outside the two leaders of the Protectionist Association for the Promotion of National Labour AUGUSTE MIMEREL and ANTOINE ODIER. They are welcomed into the Committee Room even more warmly than the free traders were. As they wait for the meeting to end they stroll about looking at the art work which lines the corridor. The meeting with Mimerel and Odier ends and one of the SENIOR BUREAUCRATS comes up to the free traders with some bad news. SENIOR BUREAUCRAT Gentlemen, I'm afraid I have some bad news for you. The Prime Minister and the Minister of Trade are going to recommend to the Chamber that there should be no change in tariff policy in the immediate future. They both would like to express their thanks for your valuable contributions. MICHEL CHEVALIER Thanks you for letting us know so quickly. Good day. CUT TO: 44 INT. THE LIBRARY IN THE PALAIS BOURBON 44 The three men walk off visibly shocked. It was not what they had expected. They leave the building through the MAGNIFICENT LIBRARY where the painter DELACROIX is finishing work on a series of ceiling murals. Frederic takes his time looking at the works. FREDERIC (calling to his departing friends) Don't wait for me. I'll see you back at Guillaumin's. Frederic is more upset than the other two as this is a severe blow to the entire free trade movement which he has built up from nothing. He looks at the paintings on the ceiling as Delacroix cleans up his brushes at the end of a day's work. After walking up and down the entire length of the room looking at the images, Frederic comes up to Delacroix. FREDERIC (CONT'D) M. Delacroix. I see at one end Orpheus bringing the law, the knowledge of agriculture, peace, and prosperity to mankind. (he points to the southern end of the building) But who is that at the other end? (he points to the northern end) DELACROIX That is Attila with his hordes of barbarians taking it all away again. If men don't learn from their mistakes they will have to pay the penalty one day. FREDERIC Indeed they will. But the thing to figure out is whether the next Attila will come from within this building or from without. DELACROIX That's a good question. I don't know. Either is possible I suppose. FREDERIC May I ask you another question M. Delacroix? DELACROIX Yes of course. FREDERIC I have a print of your painting "Liberty leading the People" on my office wall. Where is it now? DELACROIX They took it down because it embarrassed the King. It is in a storeroom somewhere in the Palais Luxembourg where no one can see it. FREDERIC That is a great pity. Thank you Monsieur. Frederic turns and leaves the building in a very sad state of mind. CUT TO: 45 INT. A GOGUETTE IN PARIS - DAY 45 The socialist LOUIS BLANC and some colleagues are in a bar filled with working men after the day's work. They are handing out leaflets with the title "The Organisation of Work". LOUIS BLANC Friends! There is a better way to organise society. If we leave it to the bosses we will always have high prices for our food and low wages for ourselves and our families. A worker takes the leaflet, looks at it, and asks WORKER 1 So who does the organising then? LOUIS BLANC Well, we do friend. Workers like you and me. We will organise ourselves into social workshops and run them ourselves. If we do the work then we should be paid accordingly. That means each person is paid according to their needs not their monetary worth. If the bosses do no work then they should not be paid. WORKER 1 Sounds fair to me! WORKER 2 And what would you do about the high price of food? LOUIS BLANC Exactly like Robespierre did back in the Revolution. Bring in price controls to stop people like bakers gouging the people. WORKER 2 But don't bakers have to make a profit too? LOUIS BLANC Yes friend, but not at the expense of the ordinary people. Only a fair and equitable profit. The conversation is interrupted by the police who enter the goguette demanding to see their working papers. POLICEMAN 1 Get your workbooks out for inspection! You there! (he points to Louis Blanc and his colleagues) Stop handing out those leaflets. Arrest him! Get them and their pamphlets! The policemen go from table to table INSPECTING THE WORKBOOKS of all the workers in the goguette and collecting all the socialist pamphlets which had been handed out. Those without workbooks or up-to-date stamps from their employers are rounded up and taken outside. POLICEMAN 1 (CONT'D) (talking to Louis Blanc) Haven't I told you before distributing political pamphlets is illegal? Take him outside! Two policemen roughly take him outside while the others gather up all the leaflets and remove them from the goguette. POLICEMAN 1 (CONT'D) This goguette is closed until further notice! There are groans and shouts of disapproval from the workers in the goguette. WORKER 2 Why don't you just leave us alone! CUT TO: 46 EXT. A PARK IN PARIS - EVENING 46 Throughout late 1847 an organised movement emerged throughout France to challenge the government's ban on political meetings and freedom of speech. LARGE OUTDOOR BANQUETS often attended by 800 or 1,000 people were organised. Instead of political speeches the banquets had dozens of political "toasts" made by political figures and intellectuals one after the other. The police had a hard time distinguishing between a short political "speech" and a long political "toast". The government eventually banned a political banquet planned for Paris on 22 February, 1848 to celebrate GEORGE WASHINGTON'S BIRTHDAY. A protest march opposing the ban was the trigger for the collapse of Louis Philippe's government and the beginning of the Revolution. Here we see one of the last large banquets before the ban was declared. Tables are arranged outdoors under the trees in a large public park in Paris. Lanterns hang from the trees. Waiters are serving dinner to the guests who have bought tickets to attend. To one side of the tables is a raised platform where speaker after speaker comes up to make a "toast". In the background we can see small groups of policemen moving about to observe the proceedings. A MASTER OF CEREMONIES announces each speaker in turn. MC Monsieur Louis Blanc has the lectern! LOUIS BLANC On behalf of the workers of Paris I would like to toast the rational organisation of labour so that working people are given the wages they truly deserve and the destructive chaos of unbridled competition and wage labour is brought to an end. To the workers of Paris! He is largely ignored by the guests who continue eating and drinking. Only a couple of people stand with their glasses raised and toast "To the Workers of Paris". MC Monsieur Léon Faucher, Deputy of France and economist now has the lectern! LéON FAUCHER In contrast to the previous speaker, I would like to make a toast to the true freedom of working, where the government leaves businesses free to arrange their own affairs as they see fit, and where workers are free to move about to choose their place of employment. To the freedom of working! Faucher gets a slightly better response from the guests, a dozen of whom stand to raise their glasses and make the toast. MC The poet Monsieur Alphonse Lamartine now has the lectern! He is welcomed with very enthusiastic applause from the guests. LAMARTINE There can be no true liberty in France unless all people have the right to say and write whatever they please and to criticise the government when it makes mistakes. I propose a toast to complete freedom of speech! There is a load cheer from the guests when they hear Lamartine's toast. They all stand and raise their glasses and repeat the toast loudly, thus attracting the attention of the police who come over to see what has been happening. One of the policemen warns the crowd: POLICEMAN 1 May I remind you political speeches are banned under the law! He is jeered by several in the crown. GUEST 3 That wasn't a speech that was a toast! The police move off looking a bit confused. MC The playwright and republican M. Etienne Arago! ETIENNE ARAGO As long as the aristocrats control the political system there can be no freedom in France. The people must be given a say in how they are governed. It is our birthright! I toast the next republic of France! There is murmuring among the guests, some of whom are not prepared to support the idea of a Republic yet. Others stand to toast Arago. On hearing these words, the police move in to REMOVE ARAGO FROM THE BANQUET. They seize him and some of guests protest their actions. A scuffle breaks out between the police and the republican guests. This part of the banquet dissolves into chaos. At other tables a bit further away the toasting continues. The camera rises above the tables for an aerial shot of the entire park showing parts that are relatively undisturbed and several where there are scuffles and arrests of speakers taking place. CUT TO: 47 EXT. A STREET IN PARIS - DAY 47 January 1848. It is a cold winter's day and government workers are pasting up a large wall poster which announces that henceforth ALL POLITICAL BANQUETS HAVE BEEN BANNED by order of the Prime Minister, Adolphe Thiers, in the name of His Majesty, King Louis Philippe, King of the French People. Some passers-by gather to read the announcement and there is unhappy muttering. FADE OUT.
[Interior of Assemblée Nationale in 1848. It seated 900 Deputies.]
FADE IN. 48 EXT. THE EXTERIOR OF THE PALAIS LUXEMBOURG - DAY 48 Opening shot of the imposing exterior of the PALAIS DE LUXEMBOURG where the Chamber of Peers met during the July Monarchy and where the socialist National Workshops will soon have its HQ. FREDERIC (V.O.) Legal plunder can be carried out in an infinite number of ways. This gives rise to an infinite number of plans for organizing it, through tariffs, protectionism, privileges, subsidies, incentives, progressive taxation, free education, the right to a job, the right to a guaranteed profit, the right to a wage, the right to public assistance, the right to be given tools for work, free credit, and so on. And it is the combination of all of these plans, insofar as they have legal plunder in common, which is given the name of socialism. DISSOLVE TO: 49 EXT. A STREET IN PARIS - DAY 49 We can only hint visually at the complex events which led to the overthrow of King Louis Philippe's government 22-26 February 1848 and the declaration of the Second Republic. Feb. 22, 1848. A large crowd of protesters with banners are PROTESTING the ban on political banquets, especially the one planned for Feb. 22 for Washington's Birthday. As the crowd marches down the streets agitated soldiers wonder how to control the crowd. A scuffle breaks out between some of the protesters and soldiers. SHOTS RING OUT, and some protesters fall to the ground. The crowd scatters. CUT TO: 50 EXT. OUTSIDE THE KING'S PALACE - DAY 50 A few hours later an even larger crowd gathers outside the King's palace demanding action be taken against the troops for killing the protesters. They are shouting angry things about the King and call for a new government. A carriage pulls up at the side of the Palace and an obviously frightened King with his family get into it and ride off. CUT TO: 51 EXT. A BALCONY OF THE HOTEL DE VILLE - DAY 51 Lamartine is standing on the balcony addressing a very large and happy crowd of people who have gathered in the square in front of the HOTEL DE VILLE. Standing next to him are 11 other Deputies, including Louis Blanc and Etienne Arago, whom he has asked to form a Provisional Government now that the King has abdicated and fled. The balcony is draped with the tricolour flag of the French Republic. CUT TO: 52 EXT. A STREET IN PARIS - DAY 52 On a windswept street which is covered in debris following the protest marches we see a pile of rubbish which is burning. No one is there, just the burning pile of rubbish. At the top of the pile someone has tossed King Louis Philippe's throne. It is identical to the one in the Daumier cartoon which so intrigued Thomas in Frederic's office. It is very elaborate, with fine upholstery and gold trim. It slowly burns and then breaks up and collapses into the pile of red hot coals. 53 INT. THE FREE TRADE ASSOCIATION OFFICE - DAY 53 Thomas comes running into the office waving a flyer he has picked up in the street. Gustave and Frederic are there reading the papers which are spread out all over the desks. THOMAS Messieurs! The King has abdicated! The government has collapsed! We are a Republic again! GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI Vive la république! FREDERIC That's fantastic! They all run out into the street where they see people milling about, shouting for joy. Some people are putting up large wall posters announcing the news. "Louis Philippe abdicates!", "Lamartine announces the formation of a Provisional Government". FREDERIC (CONT'D) This is our chance! GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI What do you mean? FREDERIC Now that the government has fallen and before the new government is formed we have real freedom of speech! We have to start our own magazine and get our ideas out to the people! Are you with me Gustave? GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI Yes, of course. FREDERIC Well, let's get started! They run back into the office and begin writing the first issue. GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI What will we call it? FREDERIC "The Republic" of course! GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI Of course, how silly of me! Frederic and Gustave quickly draw up the magazine's statement of principles. Frederic shouts out the key points and Gustave writes them down as fast as he can. Adding a few of his own as he goes. FREDERIC "we demand universal suffrage" GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI "universal suffrage" FREDERIC "We wish that henceforth labour should be completely free, no more laws against unions" GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI "no more laws against unions" FREDERIC "complete liberty of working as demanded by Turgot nearly 100 years ago" GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI "complete liberty of working" FREDERIC "an end to conscription" GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI "an end to conscription" FREDERIC "complete freedom to trade" GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI "free trade" When they have completed drawing up their statement of principles to their satisfaction Frederic surveys it. FREDERIC Excellent! Now we need to go get permission to publish it and find a printer. GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI What do you mean, get permission? I thought censorship has collapsed. FREDERIC Maybe, but we don't want to break the law unnecessarily. It won't take long to go to City Hall (Hotel de Ville) and do the paperwork. Come on! CUT TO: 54 EXT. A STREET IN PARIS - DAY 54 Gustave, Frederic, and Thomas walk along the street towards the Hotel de Ville. The streets are filled with people milling about savouring the moment. There is shouting. People gather around the wall posters with the latest news, reading out the headlines and fervently discussing events as they unfold. When they turn the corner into the square where the Hotel de Ville is located they see SCENES OF LOOTING. Armed rioters have seized control of the building, offices are being ransacked, papers and furniture are being thrown into the street. There is complete chaos. FREDERIC My mistake! There is no point in being here now. Paris has complete freedom of speech for the time being. What a great day! Let's find a printer. There are several down this street. The three turn down a street where several print shops are located. People with the same idea they have had are rushing in and out of print shops with the copy they have written for their little magazines and newspapers. As they walk down the street a person thrusts a freshly printed paper into their hands, shouting "Vive la Rébulique!" GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI Damn! Frederic, do see what they have called their magazine? They've beaten us to it! He shows him the title of the paper which reads "The Republic." GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI (CONT'D) What will call ours then? FREDERIC "The French Republic" of course! GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI Of course, how silly of me! They come to a print shop and enter it. CUT TO: 55 INT. A PRINTER'S SHOP - DAY 55 A PRINTER is standing to one side surrounded by a group of workers who have come to get their little magazine printed. Frederic calls out to get his attention. FREDERIC Monsieur, we would like to have our small magazine printed! THE PRINTER Can't you see I'm very busy right now. We can see posters and magazines which are being printed and collated. They are entitled "The National Workshops will Guarantee every Frenchman the Right to a Job". Some have the title "The Organisation of Work" with Louis Blanc's name underneath. FREDERIC But monsieur, it is very urgent! The printer eventually comes over to Frederic. THE PRINTER Let me have a look. He tears the papers out of Frederic's hands and begins reading. THE PRINTER (CONT'D) Sorry. I'm not printing this rubbish about free trade. FREDERIC What do you mean? THE PRINTER I'm a socialist and I'm helping these workers print their magazine called "The Organisation of Labour". I don't want anything to do with you lot! It's my right, so go somewhere else! Frederic, Gustave, and Thomas leave the print shop very surprised and walk down the street to find another printer's shop. CUT TO: 56 EXT. A STREET IN PARIS - DAY 56 Frederic, Gustave, and Thomas have taken up a position on a street corner where they begin handing our their little newspaper. They are not alone as other groups are doing the same thing. There is a paper called "Friends of the Republic," another called "The Democrat", and another called "The People's Constitution." Thomas and his friends are pasting a large poster with their declaration of principles on the wall behind where Frederic and Gustave are standing. The poster reads: THE FRENCH REPUBLIC. It is not enough just to change the men who rule us, it is also necessary to change our ideas. We demand: an end to all political and economic privilege. henceforth labour should be completely free, no more laws against unions, complete liberty of working Universal suffrage. No more state funded religions Freedom of commerce The elimination of taxes on food Let us live our lives at the lowest possible prices! No more conscription labour exchanges for the workers to find jobs respect for private property let us fraternize with all the people of the world, let liberty, equality, and fraternity be the law of the world! PASSERSBY come up to Frederic and Gustave to talk to them about their ideas. They get into arguments. PASSERBY 1 But the government ought to be on the side of the workers not the bosses! It should give jobs to anyone who wants to work. FREDERIC No. The government should not take one side or the other. It should leave people alone to go about their business. PASSERBY 1 The workers are too weak. They need help from the government. PASSERBY 2 They've been on the side of the bosses for too long. It is our turn now! CUT TO: 57 EXT. A BARRICADED STREET IN PARIS - DAY 57 A shout further up the street can be heard above all the discussion. UNSEEN PERSON The soldiers are coming! To the barricades! Suddenly people disappear from the street which a moment ago had been full of activity. Windows on the upper levels of building are opened and pieces of furniture and other household ITEMS ARE THROWN INTO THE STREET. People emerge from side streets with stones and iron railings from fences which they add to the growing pile in the middle of the street. An empty coach appears out of nowhere, is overturned and added to the pile of debris. A group of men come out of a building with a long iron chain which they wrap around the barricade, pull it tight and then tie the entire mass into a more solid structure. This is happening up and down the street and Frederic, Gustave, and Thomas find themselves trapped between two barricades. They can hear GUNSHOTS coming from a street a few blocks away A MAN who seems to be in charge of building the barricade comes up to them and says: MAN AT BARRICADE 1 The troops have been sent out to crush the revolution. You have a choice either to help us or get out of the way. Do you support the Republic or not? FREDERIC I support the Republic! MAN AT BARRICADE 1 Then, pick up some paving stones to add to the barricade! The three of them start pulling up street paving stones as they see others around them doing. The sound of GUNSHOTS becomes louder and they can see over the barricade that soldiers are moving down the street. They have SNIPERS who are shooting protesters in the windows of the apartments above them. The protesters also have snipers who fire back killing several soldiers. There is a massive volley of gunfire. Several people on the barricade are killed, others are wounded and lie bleeding in the street. The shooting stops for a moment and Frederic sees an OFFICER further up the street and calls out to him. FREDERIC Can we call for a cease fire! OFFICER 1 Who is that? FREDERIC A citizen! Can we have a cease fire so we can attend to the wounded? OFFICER 1 Yes. Ten minutes. Frederic, Gustave, and Thomas help others drag THE DEAD AND INJURED into a side street. There are over a dozen dead, and a similar number of wounded who are propped up against a wall. The cease fire goes on for longer than 10 minutes. Frederic asks the barricade leader: FREDERIC What is happening? MAN AT BARRICADE 1 The soldiers seem to have retreated. I think we have won. The Republic has won! Frederic surveys the devastation in the street, the glass from the BROKEN WINDOWS, and the leaflets which litter the street. CUT TO: 58 EXT. A STREET IN PARIS - DAY 58 A MASSIVE PUBLIC FUNERAL is taking place for the people who were killed by troops in the first couple of days of the Revolution. There are tricolour flags everywhere, banners declaring support for the Republic, and bands are playing la Marseillaise and other revolutionary songs. CUT TO: 59 INT. LUXEMBOURG PALACE - DAY 59 27 February 1848. A large group of men some of them armed, chanting slogans and carrying banners which state "Long Live the National Workshops" and "The Right to a Job for every Frenchman", enter and SEIZE CONTROL of the enormous Luxembourg Palace, the seat of the old Chamber of Peers. They clear the building of the few people who were there and begin setting up shop to run the National Workshops program. Louis Blanc and ALBERT take charge directing a group of workers who are busy writing decrees which will be plastered on walls all over the city. We see Blanc leave the group and walk alone through the empty corridors and rooms of the magnificent palace which once housed the aristocratic Chamber of Peers, but which is now home to radical socialist agitators. As Blanc walks through the rooms he sees and hears some of the ghosts of the recently departed Peers who seem to still haunt the building. He enters one room and sees A LARGE OBJECT DRAPED IN CLOTHS. He is curious about it and lifts up a corner of the cloth to see Delacroix's painting "Liberty Leading the People" which has been hidden away as if it now shamed the King to have it on display. CUT TO: 60 EXT. THE COURTYARD OF THE LUXEMBOURG PALACE - DAY 60 Several groups of men set out in different directions to put up the posters which say, "The Commission for Labour decrees a Work Day limit of 12 hours"; "All unemployed men are to report to the mayors of their districts for allocation to work brigades. Guaranteed Pay of 2 francs per day", etc. The next day a DEMONSTRATION OF A FEW THOUSAND PEOPLE gather in the courtyard of the Luxembourg Place. They are provided with large banners which say "We have a Right to a Job". They begin marching through the streets chanting and waving their banners. CUT TO: 61 INT. LUXEMBOURG PALACE - DAY 61 Louis Blanc is in the old speaker's chair in the main chamber of the Palace where the Peers used to debate. The director Albert is with him. Behind him there is a semi-circle of statues of famous French politicians and statesmen. The camera surveys the STATUES focusing on the one at the far left, the supporter of free markets TURGOT, and the one in the middle, COLBERT who advocated centralised power and government regulation of the economy. Louis Blanc is addressing the inner circle of his supporters. LOUIS BLANC We have to keep the pressure on the Provisional Government. Lamartine is weak and is afraid of a public backlash. We are one of the few groups which can get thousands of angry people out into the streets at a moment's notice. The Provisional Government created the Committee for Labour but they have no idea what our real aims are. ALBERT It shouldn't come as a surprise to them as we have been quite open about our goals. Another edition of Blanc's book Organisation of Labour is being printed and we will begin circulating copies as soon as they are delivered. LOUIS BLANC Albert and I have drawn up a statement of principles which we will distribute now for private internal discussion among us. He indicates to an assistant to hand out the paper LOUIS BLANC (CONT'D) It is too soon to present this to the Provisional Government for discussion. After the elections in April when we have consolidated our political position we will put this forward for formal discussion. There is a buzz of excitement around the room as people begin to read the leaflet. Blanc begins to read out the list of proposals. LOUIS BLANC (CONT'D) We will create a new Ministry for Labour whose mission will be to prepare us for the next stage of the social revolution which will lead us gradually to the abolition of the proletariat as a class. We will also create a Ministry for Economic Progress whose task will be to nationalise in the hands of the State all landed property, the railways, the mines, and the insurance industry. It will also create huge warehouses in which every manufacturer and producer will deposit the things they make to be sold at prices determined by the state and managed by state functionaries. The producers will be paid with paper money issued by the central state bank. All profits made by state enterprises like the railways will be paid to the Ministry of Labour to be distributed to the workers. To be eligible for these payments workers associations must be placed under the control of the state and organised in a collective and fraternal manner. All wages and prices will be set at a uniform level by a commission established by the state for this purpose. This will ensure that there is no harmful competition between workshops in the same industry. The capital acquired by society will be allocated by an administrative council which will thus control the reins of industry. The State will bring about the realisation of this legal plan to build socialism through successive stages without assaulting any person. It will provide the model for private associations which will continue to exist in parallel with it. However, we are convinced that, such will be its attractiveness, that the State will attract into the orbit of its power, all rival systems of economic organisation. Then we will have realised our ultimate goal of ridding the world of private property, wage labour, profit, interest, and rent. CUT TO: 62 INT. GUILLAUMIN'S OFFICE - DAY 62 Early March 1848. There is an emergency meeting of the Economists at the Guillaumin HQ to rethink their political strategy. FREDERIC This is madness! After four years hard work you want to shut it down! We haven't finished our work yet! GUILLAUMIN But Frederic! Everything has changed with the Revolution! We have to drop the free trade movement and focus on the new threat of socialism. GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI We completely underestimated the power of the socialists to get people into the streets. Don't you see we have to focus on them now, Frederic. FREDERIC But the protectionist oligarchy hasn't gone away. They are still out there. GUILLAUMIN Yes, but they are in disarray. They were caught unawares just as we were. We have to counter the most pressing threat which is Louis Blanc and his supporters in the Luxembourg Palace. He is putting considerable pressure on the Provisional Government. To make things even worse, Chevalier has been sacked as a professor at the College de France. FREDERIC How could they do that? GUILLAUMIN They decided to "reorganise" the teaching of economics so socialist economics could be taught alongside free market economics. They said they wanted "to teach the debate". FREDERIC That's a disaster. GUILLAUMIN Yes. Say is heading up a delegation to see Lamartine and urge that he be re-appointed, but it will take a while. In the meantime we have lost one of our most important positions of influence. So, we have to completely rethink our strategy to oppose the socialists. FREDERIC Not all the people have gone over to the socialists. We met lots of good people on the streets who just wanted freedom of speech and lower food prices. They weren't socialists by any means! GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI But they are listening to what the socialists are saying about the right to a job and the need for government funded relief in times of hardship. We have to counter that. GUILLAUMIN I'm not saying we forget the free trade movement. We just rearrange our priorities for the time being. We will come back to free trade later. FREDERIC When? GUILLAUMIN When things have settled down. Maybe after the elections in April. FREDERIC I still can't believe you want to do this, after all that I have done. GUILLAUMIN There are other things you can do Frederic. You've attacked the socialists before in your sophisms. You should do more of that. GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI We also need to take advantage of the collapse of the censorship laws. We can debate the socialists on the streets on their own terms. Political Clubs are springing up all over the city. We can start our own. Coquelin even has a name for it. FREDERIC What is it? GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI The Club for the Liberty of Working, or "Club Lib" for short. CUT TO: 63 EXT/INT. A STREET IN PARIS - NIGHT 63 The camera pans down a street in Paris where several of the new POLITICAL CLUBS are located. In the building which contains the Salle de Montesquieu, where the Free Trade Association once held its meetings, there is now a SOCIALIST CLUB called the "Icarian Socialists Club". A large banner announces "Join the Icarian Socialists Model Community in Texas". ETIENNE CABET is speaking before a small audience: ETIENNE CABET Brothers! The best hope for socialism is not here in Paris but in the vast expanses of Texas. We have land there and an advance party of socialists has already begun the task of building a model socialist community in the new world. Join them! Leave this Babylon of Paris behind and start anew! Texas will soon become a socialist paradise! CUT TO: 64 INT. CLUB LIB MEETING ROOM - EVENING 64 The camera moves further down the street and we see another Club called "The Club for the Emancipation of Women". A banner says "Women must have the Right to Vote". A woman is speaking before a much larger crowd of men and women, but the camera does not linger so we can hear what she is saying. The next Club on the street is "The German Workers Club" which is filled with German workers who live and work in Paris. A banner announces "The Manifesto of the Communist Party: Workers of the World Unite!" A heavily bearded man, KARL MARX, can be heard addressing the group: KARL MARX We ally ourselves with the more advanced French socialists such as Louis Blanc and the Social Democrats in the Chamber. Many of our demands are similar to theirs. We call for the abolition of property in land and land rent, a high and progressive income tax, the centralisation of credit in the hands of the state, the ownership and centralisation of the means of communication and transport in the hands of the State, the expansion of state owned and run factories, the creation of industrial armies, especially for agriculture, and free education for all children in public schools We openly declare that our ends can be attained only by the forcible overthrow of all existing social conditions. Let the ruling classes tremble at a Communistic revolution. The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains! The next Club revealed by the camera is Louis Blanc's "Socialist Workers Club" where we see Blanc addressing a group but we do not listen in. We can see his banners and slogans draped across the front of the hall. The camera then passes to show the meeting place of the Economists' "CLUB FOR THE FREEDOM OF WORKING". The banner on the front wall of the hall states "The Freedom to Work is the Right of every Worker". Joseph Garnier, Frederic, and Gustave are the speakers. GARNIER The socialists have correctly identified some serious problems in French society, such as the high price of food and the difficulty of getting good jobs. There is jeering by some socialists in the audience. GARNIER (CONT'D) But they are completely wrong about what causes these problems! More jeering. GARNIER (CONT'D) The high price of food is caused by tariffs on imported wheat which keeps the price of bread high, or by government taxes on salt and wine, which we know are essential for the well-being of the French worker! There are spirited cheers from the audience. GARNIER (CONT'D) So, to lower the price of food we desperately need free trade so we can buy the cheapest food wherever it might be in the world. From America, from the Crimea, even from England! There is boo-ing at the last mentioned country. GARNIER (CONT'D) My friend and colleague Frederic Bastiat will tell you why good jobs are so hard to get. There are some cheers for Frederic as he is known by some in the audience. FREDERIC Ladies and Gentlemen! (there are a few women present in the audience) The most precious thing you or anyone else has is their own body and the labour which they create with their body. But why does the government stop you from using your own body and your own labour as you see fit? PERSON IN AUDIENCE 1 Tell us then! Why does it? (there is some laughter and jeering) FREDERIC I'll tell you friend! Because for decades the government has not let workers work without having a workbook which their employer has to sign and the police have to check every time they see you on the street. You are slaves to the workbook! There are loud cheers of agreement from the audience. FREDERIC (CONT'D) The government will not let you work at any trade you like. You cannot be a butcher or a baker unless the government gives you a licence! There are boos from the audience. PERSON IN AUDIENCE 2 What about a candlestick maker? There is much hilarity at the comment. FREDERIC Friend, I'm glad you ask! I have written a paper on that very question. The candlemakers don't have to work too hard. They just get an exclusive licence from the government! Something you can't do! The debate and repartee continues in this vein for a while until the meeting comes to a close and people begin to file out. It is very noisy in the hall as the debate has stirred up a lot of interest. As the last of audience leaves the hall Joseph, Frederic, and Gustave pack up their pamphlets and banner. They are met by A GROUP OF THUGS. One of them pushes Gustave who drops his bundle of papers. GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI What the hell are you doing! COMMUNIST THUG 1 You have no right to be here. You are not a real worker. GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI I have every right! Who are you? TWO OF THE THUGS step between Gustave and Frederic and Joseph. The first thug grabs Gustave by the hands, twists them hard, and looks at his nails. Gustave cries out in pain. COMMUNIST THUG 1 Just as I thought. You don't have the hands of a worker! Get out of here! The three communist thugs push the economists to the ground, kick their pamphlets into the street, rough up Thomas, and then leave. The economists did not fight back. They are dirty and dishevelled and Gustave and Thomas have bloody noses. Louis Blanc sees this violence from the adjoining hall and comes over to speak to the economists. GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI See what your communists thugs have done! So much for socialists supporting the freedom of speech! LOUIS BLANC I don't believe in violence and have never advocated it. I don't know who these people are. I've never seen them before. Can I help you? GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI Leave me alone! FREDERIC Thank you Louis. He is just a bit shocked. LOUIS BLANC It shocked me too. FREDERIC The danger is that you and your socialist friends have raised the expectations of so many of the unemployed that they now expect the new government to solve all their problems for them. LOUIS BLANC And why shouldn't it? FREDERIC Because it can't without taking other people's property. LOUIS BLANC Then so be it! Louis Blanc walks off as the economists pick themselves up and get their things in order. CUT TO: 65 EXT. PUBLIC SQUARE IN MUGRON - DAY 65 Early April 1848. As part of the new strategy adopted by the Economists Frederic is STANDING FOR ELECTION to the Constituent Assembly of the new Second Republic to be held on 22 April. He has returned to Mugron to campaign under the new electoral law which has granted universal manhood suffrage. We hear him giving a speech in the square of Mugron on political and economic freedom and the dangers posed by high taxes and socialist schemes. FREDERIC Citizens of Mugron! Last time we had an election here only the wealthiest tax payers were allowed to vote. This "electoral class", this dreadful oligarchy, were able to control the Assembly for their own purposes. Now thank goodness, the rule of this class has been broken and all the people can vote. It is now up to you to see that people like me can represent your interests for the first time in many decades. There are cheers from the crowd of electors in the square. FREDERIC (CONT'D) My activities in Paris over the past few years show exactly what I stand for and how I will represent your interests. I have argued for free trade, which will assist our region in finding new markets for our wine; I have opposed high taxes on food and other essential products which oppress the poorest members of our community, I have lobbied hard in the local Council for a complete reassessment of the tax burden which is based on decades old and out of date tax assessments; and most particularly in the recent revolution I have taken the strongest possible stand against socialism and for the protection of the property rights of all individuals. I will continue to do this if you elect me as one of representatives in the coming election. CUT TO: 66 INT. BASTIAT'S HOUSE IN MUGRON - EVENING 66 Sometime later, Frederic is with his neighbours having a drink and reminiscing abut old times before he went to Paris while they wait to hear the election results. FELIX How are your nerves holding up Fredreric? FREDERIC Quite well. This wine helps! FELIX I think you should be confident. People are impressed with what you have done in Paris over the past few years. They understand you appreciate the needs of our region. FREDERIC I just hope they appreciate the danger if the socialists do well in the election. A messenger comes up to the front door of his house with news about the vote count. MESSENGER May I come in? We have news about the vote count. FREDERIC Please, come in! MESSENGER M. Bastiat you came 2nd with 56,445 votes. You will be one of 7 representatives for our district. FREDERIC That's wonderful! How did the socialist candidates do? MESSENGER They did very badly. Not one was elected in our district. I don't know about Bordeaux. It is too soon to tell. FELIX Well done Frederic! Congratulations. CUT TO: 67 INT. CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY HALL - DAY 67 Early May 1848. The 900 Deputies in the newly elected Constituent Assembly gather in the Chamber of the Palais Bourbon. There is a lot of noise as they take their seats. We see the song writer BéRANGER taking his seat as well as some of the other Economists who were successful in the election, such as Alexis de Tocqueville, Wolowski, Faucher. Frederic takes his seat between the two main blocks of delegates. To the right is the majority faction of conservatives and monarchists all of whom are very well and fashionably dressed. To the left is the smaller group of socialists and radical republicans like Louis Blanc, Victor Considerant, and Proudhon who are wearing different types of city worker or country farmer styles of clothes. They have not done as well as they had hoped in the election. Frederic sits with a group of moderate republicans and liberals in the middle, like Lamartine, who are suitably dressed in middle of the road attire. The SPEAKER OF THE ASSEMBLY bangs his gavel and calls the assembly to order. SPEAKER OF THE ASSEMBLY I call upon the member for Les Landes and Vice-President of the Chamber's Finance Committee, Citizen Bastiat to address us on the question of tax reform. Citizen Bastiat has the floor! FREDERIC Today it is my task to report to you the conclusions of the Finance Committee. As you know, the Revolution of February, barely two months ago, caused an economic recession in our country which continues to this day. The uncertainty caused by the collapse of the Monarchy, the brutal repression of the people, and the collapse of the stock market has resulted in a serious decline in tax revenue and a significant increase in unemployment. The initial reaction of the Provisional Government was to launch the National Workshops in order to put the unemployed to work and to increase direct taxes on ordinary working people by 45%. Both these measures have been an utter disaster. There are boos and catcalls from the socialists on the left; shouts of abuse from the right at the socialist deputies. FREDERIC (CONT'D) Instead of cutting government expenditure across the board, including measures such as an end to all government subsidies to industry and bailouts for the railway companies, There are now boos and catcalls from the conservative right; and abuse from the socialist left at the conservatives. FREDERIC (CONT'D) And cutting taxes on the poorest members of our society, especially on food, There are cheers from the left. FREDERIC (CONT'D) The government has done the opposite. Unless we can agree on the right mix of tax cuts and expenditure cuts, the economic crisis will continue and I fear another explosion of discontent such as we witnessed in February. The Chamber breaks down into name-calling from both sides as the Speaker tries to restore order. CUT TO: 68 INT. CHAMBER COMMITTEE MEETING ROOM - DAY 68 A meeting of the Chamber's Finance Committee is underway in the same meeting room where Frederic and the economists discussed tariff reform unsuccessfully with Thiers the previous year. Frederic is presenting the case for taking radical and immediate action to solve their budget problems. FREDERIC Gentlemen, we have reached a breaking point. We have to do two nearly impossible things to save our financial situation. We have to cut taxes on ordinary working people and we have to cut spending massively just to balance the budget. The biggest single item of expenditure is the military which costs us fr. 400 million every year and this cries out for cuts. There are murmurs of strong disagreement from Members of the Committee. FREDERIC (CONT'D) My suggestion is an immediate cut of fr. 100 million followed by an attempt to negotiate a treaty with England for mutual disarmament, which would allow us to make further cuts in the future. FINANCE COMMITTEE MEMBER 1 Citizen Bastiat I think that is unacceptable at the moment given the widespread suspicion of England's motives at this time. FINANCE COMMITTEE MEMBER 2 I agree. FREDERIC Well, the newest expenditure which is rapidly getting out of control, is spending on Louis Blanc's National Workshops. The initial prediction for the number of unemployed we would have to support in Paris was 10,000. This has ballooned to over 100,000 and there is no end in sight. I urge that this boondoggle be closed down immediately. FINANCE COMMITTEE MEMBER 2 Now that is more acceptable! There are murmurs of agreement among the committee members. FREDERIC If we cut this relief program we have to offer the poor people of France something it return, otherwise the burden does not fall equally. I suggest an across the board cut in tariffs on food and clothing to 10% by value so these essential items are cheaper to buy. FINANCE COMMITTEE MEMBER 1 The conservative block will never agree to that. You know tariff reform failed last year, so why do you think it would pass today? FREDERIC Because we are in a crisis and something drastic has to change or we face catastrophe. FINANCE COMMITTEE MEMBER 1 I suggest we call for a vote on the measures we will recommend to the Chamber. FREDERIC All those in favour of cutting the military budget by 25%? Only 3 out of 10 Committee members vote for it. FREDERIC (CONT'D) All those in favour of cutting tariffs to a maximum of 10% by value? Only 2 out of 10 Committee members vote for it. FREDERIC (CONT'D) And all those in favour of scrapping the National Workshops program immediately? This time 8 out of 10 Committee members vote for it. FREDERIC (CONT'D) I have to say I am disappointed in you gentlemen. We have to move faster and harder on this than you seem to realise. CUT TO: 69 INT. CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY HALL - DAY 69 May 15 1848 and Frederic is giving his Report to the Chamber on the Finance Committee's recommendations to solve the budget crisis. FREDERIC So, in conclusion Fellow Deputies, the near unanimous recommendation of the Finance Committee is that the unsupportable financial demands of the National Workshop program be brought to an immediate end, that the program be wound up, and that the Chamber use the savings to balance the budget and to look for ways to cut taxes in order to relieve the burden on the poorest people in our community. There are boos and calls of "shame" from the left benches and applause from the right benches. The Speaker of the Chamber is about to call for vote on the Committee's recommendation when there is a noise at the main entrance to the Chamber and A GROUP OF ARMED MEN force their way in. INTRUDER 1 In the name of the people and the Luxembourg Commission for Labour we demand that the Assembly immediately resign and hand power over to a new Provisional Government! DEPUTIES IN THE CHAMBER (from nearly all the Deputies) Get out of here! Guards! Have these men removed immediately. Frederic is stunned and remains on the podium not knowing what to do next. The intruder goes to the podium and pushes Frederic roughly aside. He raises his rifle and threatens the Deputies. The other intruders move to block the exit and to take up strategic positions around the Chamber. INTRUDER 1 Quiet! I have two further demands. The first is that the new Provisional Government pass a decree pledging financial and military support for our comrades in Poland who are fighting their oppressors and wish to follow the glorious example of our nation in building a new society for all its citizens. DEPUTIES IN THE CHAMBER (from the right benches) Never! (from the left benches) Bravo! INTRUDER 1 Our third demand is that the new Provisional Government promise to protect the integrity of the National Workshops at all costs. DEPUTIES IN THE CHAMBER (from the right benches) This is madness! (from the left benches) Hear! Hear There is more commotion as a group of armed protesters enter the Chamber CARRYING LOUIS BLANC ON THEIR SHOULDERS. A cheer breaks out among the socialist deputies when they see who it is. Blanc is uncomfortable being carried around the Chamber as he did not want to enter the Chamber in this way but is powerless to stop them. After making a circuit of the Chamber the intruders put Louis Blanc down. By this time armed guards appear and begin arresting the intruders. They are surrounded, disarmed, and the spokesman at the podium is pulled down and arrested. There is much shouting but no shooting. The intrudes are all removed from the Chamber at gun point. When the noise dies down and order begins to be restored, the Speaker steps up to the podium. SPEAKER OF THE ASSEMBLY Gentlemen! I apologise for the intrusions. Now perhaps some of you can see what we are up against. There are boos and catcalls from the left benches. SPEAKER OF THE ASSEMBLY (CONT'D) Before we disperse, I want to call for a vote on the recommendations of the Finance Committee as presented by Citizen Bastiat. All those in favouring of immediately closing the National Workshops program? DEPUTIES IN THE CHAMBER (there is a deafening and overwhelming cry) Aye! SPEAKER OF THE ASSEMBLY I think the "ayes" have it. Assembly adjourned! CUT TO: 70 INT. FREDERIC'S OFFICE AT GUILLAUMIN HQ 70 Mid-June 1848. Frederic, Joseph, Gustave, and Thomas are in Frederic's office planning their next step. GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI The word on the street is that Louis Blanc and his socialist friends are planning a big demonstration at the end of the week to protest the closing of the National Workshops. This could get really nasty. FREDERIC I don't think Louis Blanc was behind the invasion of the Chamber. That was done by some of his hothead supporters. GARNIER Yes, but he put the idea in their heads that the state owed them a job and a living at taxpayer expence. FREDERIC True enough I suppose. Even though his solutions are wrong he has tapped into a lot of popular resentment about the lack of jobs and the high price of food. We have to counter that somehow. GARNIER What do you have in mind? Another magazine? FREDERIC Precisely! GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI Will you never learn? FREDERIC We have to appeal to the people directly. Otherwise the socialists will have won the war of ideas. GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI We tried that already, and where did that get us? FREDERIC No we didn't. We appealed to the average newspaper reader not the average person in the street. This time we will write from his or her perspective. This time we will call it "Jacques Bonhomme" or "Jack Everyman" and write about events as if Jacques Bonhomme himself were describing them. Short and simple and in the vernacular of the street. GARNIER It might work. FREDERIC It will this time. I'm sure! I've already written a couple of articles which can also double as wall posters. Thomas, you can put them up as you are now an expert at that sort of thing! Aren't you? THOMAS Yes, monsieur. (he says a bit reluctantly) FREDERIC Good! Take a look at this one. I am offering a prize of 50,000 francs for the best definition of the state anyone can come up with. GARNIER You are kidding! You don't have 50,000 francs. FREDERIC I know. It is a bit of poetic license! But I want to get people's attention. I want them to think about the fact that the state can't give anybody anything without taking it from someone else first. It can't be a universal big father or big brother who can take care of everybody's every need. That is a great fiction which must be dispelled! GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI Good luck with that! FREDERIC I also have another which will make a great wall poster. A list of the reasons why the National Workshops are a bad idea for the country and for ordinary people. THOMAS Monsieur, if I paste that up on the walls they will only get torn down again. FREDERIC Most likely. We'll just have to get more printed then. CUT TO: 71 INT. LUXEMBOURG PALACE - DAY 71 There is a meeting taking place in the Luxembourg Palace between Louis Blanc and the leadership of the protests. LOUIS BLANC We must defend the National Workshops at all cost. You know that. If we can get enough people out in the streets to protest we can put pressure back on those spineless bastards in the Assembly who are trying to close us down. There are 100,000 on the Workshop payroll and many more sympathisers among the working class. The people know how to build barricades, just help them get motivated. Tell them that the National Workshops are a kind of insurance which anyone of them might need one day in the future when the economy goes bad. If the government takes this away then who knows what else they will take from the working people of this city. To add insult to injury they are threatening to conscript all those working in the National Workshops into the army and send them by force out into the countryside. Spread out, don't confront the troops head on. With any luck they will make the same mistakes as they did in February and get cut off down the side streets. Oh! One last thing. If you see any wall posters or flyers from Bastiat's free trade group. Tear them down. The team leaders move out into the parade ground where people are gathering to form a large coordinated protest through the streets. They have banners which state "Save our National Workshops!" and "We have the Right to Work" and "To each according to his Needs!". As the groups form up ready to march out into the streets the camera shows us a final fleeting glimpse of Delacroix's iconic painting "Liberty leading the People" draped in cloth and hidden from public view. CUT TO: 72 EXT. A STREET IN PARIS - DAY 72 June 22, 1848. There are four different sets of activity which come together on this day: the street marchers organised by Blanc's Luxembourg Commission of Labour protesting the closure of the National Workshops; other groups who are erecting hundreds of barricades across the streets of Paris in a reprise of February, some of whom support the protest against the closure of the Workshops and others who are unhappy about the bad economic condition France is in; Frederic's group of economists who are on the streets with their new magazine "Jacques Bonhomme" protesting about the protesters; and the soldiers who are getting into position with their rifles and artillery to crush the rebellion once and for all. First we see a large group of SEVERAL HUNDRED PROTESTERS from the Luxembourg Commission marching down a street with their banners and shouting "Save the National Workshops" and "We have a Right to a Job". Next we see shots of BARRICADES being erected in street after street (as described earlier). A bird's eye view of these streets shows how extensive the barricade building is (there are over 1,000 barricades across the city), with men, women and children assisting in their construction. Then we see TROOPS MASSING at the ends of the major boulevards but not doing anything for the time being. Ominously, we see DOZENS OF ARTILLERY PIECES being drawn up along with wagon loads of shells. Finally we see Gustave, Frederic, and Joseph at an intersection begin handing out their newly printed magazine "Jacques Bonhomme". As they hand out their sheets we see some of the passersby shaking their heads and throwing the sheets away as they go about their business. For comedic relief, we see Thomas starting to paste up the new wall posters. One of them is "The State" which says: "What is the State? Does the STATE have bread for every mouth, milk for every child, work for every arm, capital for every businesses, balm for every suffering, and answers to every question? NO of course not. The state is the great fiction by which everyone endeavors to live at the expense of everyone else. It gives with one hand but takes with two! Don't be duped by the socialists!" The second one is Frederic's critique of the National Workshops: "Close the National Workshops Now! The National Workshops do not Provide real jobs for real workers! They pay you a pittance to dig ditches for the government and fill them in again. Real jobs come from a thriving economy which is open, free, and growing. The National Workshops are bankrupting France and destroying the economy. End them Now!" As Thomas rounds the building he disappears from sight and pro-Blanc supporters appear and begin RIPPING DOWN HIS POSTERS. When Thomas comes back to his starting point he sees what they have done, shrugs, and begins posting them up again. A short time later we see Thomas and Frederic alone working a street where a hastily built barricade has suddenly appeared in the middle of the street. Frederic is asking the people on the barricade why they are doing this. FREDERIC Citizen! Do you support the National Workshops? Is this why you are building the barricade? MAN AT BARRICADE 1 Not really. I feel sorry for those out of work but we can't really afford to support them like this. It is not as though we are teaching them a productive trade for the future. FREDERIC So why the barricade? MAN AT BARRICADE 1 I'm sick of the taxes, I'm sick of the corruption, I'm sick of the squabbling in the Chamber. Nothing is getting done to help people like me. I've had enough. Things have to change. FREDERIC Yes they do. GUNFIRE can be heard nearby. MAN AT BARRICADE 1 Quick! Take cover. They are coming now. We can see men and women running down the street towards the barricade. Some are carrying banners with their protest slogans "We have a Right to a Job" and "Save the National Workshops" which they throw to the ground as they run. The barricades consist of paving stones, overturned carriages, broken doors, furniture and other debris all chained together. A group of protesters on the barricades begin to chant "GIVE US BREAD, OR GIVE US LEAD!" taunting the soldiers as they approach The soldiers move down the street firing at the people on the barricade. Behind them other soldiers are setting up an ARTILLERY PIECE which is aimed at the barricade. Some of the protesters run into the side streets as soldiers fire volleys of rifle fire and the occasional artillery shell which hits the barricade. The soldiers fire methodically at the people, injuring some and killing others. Men begin firing back at the soldiers from the side streets and the windows of the upper stories of the houses along the street. Some people throw furniture and stones out of the windows onto the advancing soldiers. We see Frederic and Thomas clutching the stack of newspapers they were handing out on the street, running towards the barricade to seek shelter. Thomas drops his bundle of papers and stops to retrieve them: FREDERIC No! Leave them! As Thomas fumbles about trying to pick up the papers FREDERIC IS HIT in the upper arm by a bullet and collapses behind the barricade. As he looks to see what happened to Thomas he is hit in the face by flesh and blood (perhaps some brain tissue) from THOMAS WHO HAS BEEN KILLED BY A BULLET TO THE HEAD. FREDERIC (CONT'D) Thomas, oh no! What have they done to you? What have I done? He grabs Thomas body clutching it to him and then falls back onto the barricade losing consciousness from shock and loss of blood. CUT TO: 73 EXT. A STREET IN PARIS - DAY 73 As Frederic lies on the barricade holding the dead body of Thomas the camera shows a bird's eye view of the devastated streets of Paris with hundreds of abandoned and partly destroyed barricades. This time the soldiers have been successful and the protesters with their barricades have been defeated by coordinated artillery fire and more disciplined deployment of the troops. We see a group of soldiers rounding up a group of dishevelled protesters and lining them up against a wall in a side street. An officer gives the command and they are all SUMMARILY EXECUTED. Later, we see a group of soldiers who have arrested a man who they are roughing up and threatening TO SHOOT WITH A REVOLVER HELD TO THE HEAD. We see it is Louis Blanc who is very frightened. They do not shoot him but arrest him and drag him off. Later we can see people cleaning up the DEBRIS AND BROKEN GLASS; squads of solders and police leading away groups of arrested men; wagons carrying off the bodies of the dead protesters. CUT TO: 74 INT. DOCTOR'S SURGERY - DAY 74 After the riots Gustave is helping the injured Frederic to a doctor's surgery. He has lost a lot of blood and has injuries to his face and upper arms. FREDERIC (very distraught) What is happening to Thomas? GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI I got you away as fast as I could before the soldiers came. They took his body away with the others. FREDERIC He's dead? GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI Yes. A lot of that blood on you is his, poor boy. FREDERIC I must see his body! I'm responsible for him. GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI After you are through with the doctor I'll go and ask the soldiers if we can have the body for burial. Here we are. They enter the doctor's surgery where other victims of the shooting are being attended to. GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI (CONT'D) It is your turn. Frederic is helped into the surgery and the examination begins. DOCTOR You have lost quite a lot of blood but a few stitches and some rest will see you right. Nothing too serious. No bones are broken. Do you have any other pain? I see you cough quite a lot. FREDERIC Yes. In my throat. DOCTOR Let me take a look. He begins feeling Frederic's throat and becomes very interested when he feels a lump. DOCTOR (CONT'D) How long have you had this lump? FREDERIC A couple of years. I sometimes have trouble swallowing and speaking for long periods can get difficult. DOCTOR I'm afraid I have bad news for you. I think it is what they call a cancer. FREDERIC What's that? DOCTOR A lump which continues to grow and puts pressure on other tissue around it. In your case the throat. FREDERIC Can it be removed? DOCTOR No. Not without killing you from loss of blood or post-operative difficulties. FREDERIC What are you telling me? DOCTOR I'm afraid it will eventually kill you. FREDERIC How long do I have? DOCTOR A year or two at the most. I can't be sure. So if you have things you need to do I would do them as soon as possible. Frederic is very quiet as he digests the meaning of what the doctor has told him. He holds his head in his hands. FREDERIC Will there be much pain? DOCTOR I'm afraid there will be and it will get worse. He puts a small brown bottle on the table next to Frederic. DOCTOR (CONT'D) I suggest you carry a bottle of laudanum with you at all times and take a sip when the pain gets bad. You can buy it anywhere. FREDERIC Thank you doctor. This is very hard. DOCTOR Yes, I know. Good luck. Do you have a good friend to help you? There will be some difficult times ahead. FREDERIC Yes I do. Thank you doctor. Gustave takes the shaken Frederic home to his apartment. FADE OUT.
[Victor Hugo opening the Peace Congress in Saint-Cecile Hall]
FADE IN: 75 INT. THE LECTURE HALL AT THE COLLEGE DE FRANCE - DAY 75 We see the a shot of the interior of the ORNATE LECTURE THEATRE in the Collge de France where Frederic will later give a guest lecture. FREDERIC (V.O.) Eagerness to learn, the need to believe in something, minds still immune to age-old prejudices, hearts untouched by hatred, zeal for worthy causes, ardent affections, unselfishness, loyalty, good faith, enthusiasm for all that is good, beautiful, sincere, great, wholesome, and spiritual Ñ such are the priceless gifts of youth. That is why I dedicate this book to the youth of France. The seed that I now propose to sow must be sterile indeed if it fails to quicken into life upon soil as propitious as this. DISSOLVE TO: 76 INT. BASTIAT'S APARTMENT IN PARIS - DAY 76 Gustave has brought Frederic home to his apartment. They are sitting looking out the window while having a glass of wine. FREDERIC This is rather funny when you think of it. GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI How so? FREDERIC A politician who is losing his voice. GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI I suppose it is. FREDERIC Now that I have a captive audience of 900 people in the Chamber all I will be able to do is croak at them. What an indignity! GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI Your opponents will love it. They couldn't silence you with their guns or their arguments. They had to wait for nature to intervene for them. FREDERIC (he chokes on his wine as he laughs) Don't make me laugh. It hurts! GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI Sorry! But Frederic, your real skill lies in writing. You'll have to concentrate on that while your strength lasts. Think of it as a kind of division of labour. FREDERIC How so? GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI Leave the speaking to the orators like Lamartine and Faucher. You should continue to write your pamphlets and we'll circulate them among the Deputies. FREDERIC That might work. But I love speaking to a good audience and see their eyes light up when they get the point of the argument. GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI People love reading your sophisms. They will last longer than a speech which disappears into thin air. FREDERIC Maybe you are right. GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI And don't forget. A positive side to all this is that it might free up more of your time to finish your treatise. If you have the will power. FREDERIC I hope I do. GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI How much have you done on it? FREDERIC With a couple of months work I could have the first volume finished. I have lots of drafts and sketches for the second volume but I keep getting distracted. Revolutions can be very distracting Gustave. GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI (he laughs) Yes, I know! You should talk to Hortense. Maybe she can help you get away so you can work on your treatise. She is very fond of you and would do anything to help. FREDERIC Yes. Frederic is thinking that he is very fond of her too, and looks wistfully out the window. CUT TO: 77 INT. CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY HALL - DAY 77 Early July 1848. The Assembly is meeting to discuss measures to be taken after the June Days uprising. SPEAKER OF THE ASSEMBLY I now call for a vote on the measure before the Assembly to continue martial law for another three months and to close all the Political Clubs for the foreseeable future. Those in favour? There is a loud cry of "Aye!" SPEAKER OF THE ASSEMBLY (CONT'D) Those against? A very much smaller group of Deputies say "Nay!" SPEAKER OF THE ASSEMBLY (CONT'D) The "Ayes" have it by a large majority. The next order of business is the motion to strip Representative Louis Blanc of his parliamentary privilege so he can be arrested and charged with complicity in the organisation of the June Days uprising. It is fitting that one of the speakers against the motion is Representative Bastiat. Citizen Bastiat has the floor! FREDERIC Thank you Monsieur Speaker! No one could ever call me a friend of Louis Blanc. I have strenuously opposed his socialist views from the moment I first heard them. I have opposed them in my writings and on the floor of this very Chamber. I have done everything in my power to close down his operation at the Luxembourg Palace as Vice-President of the Finance Committee. All of that should be blindingly obvious to you my fellow Representatives. However, I want to speak against the motion for two reasons of principle and one reason of practicality. The reasons of principle are as follows. It is a clear principle under the rule of law that a person cannot be charged with a crime which was not illegal at the time it was committed. Louis Blanc in June of this year was a recognised member of this Chamber and as such had then and still has now all the privileges of that office. To change this retroactively would in itself be a crime according to the rule of law. The second reason of principle is that he did not commit any act which violated the law. Others acted in this way but not him personally. He expressed ideas about the organisation of labour and the right to have a government funded job which I find abhorrent but again this expression of ideas was not then and is not now illegal in themselves. In fact I would go further, this Chamber paid him as the head of the Luxembourg Commission to make these ideas public and to attempt to put them into practice. You gentlemen! You paid him to do this. How can you now arrest him for doing what you paid him to do? My third and final reason is one of practicality. Stripping him of his parliamentary immunity and putting him in jail will do nothing to destroy the idea of socialism. That will live on no matter what you and this Chamber may do to him. In fact, this might make things worse by making him a martyr to the socialist cause. Socialism must be destroyed as an idea if we are to eliminate it for good, as I'm many in this Chamber wish to do. There are cries of "hear! Hear! From the right; and "never" from the left. SPEAKER OF THE ASSEMBLY Thank you Citizen Bastiat. Now I call for the vote. Those in favour of stripping Representative Blanc of his immunity? (a very loud chorus of "ayes") Against, (very few say "nay", including Frederic) The "ayes" have it 504 votes to 252. CUT TO: 78 EXT. A STREET IN PARIS - DAY 78 MARTIAL LAW has been declared in Paris. We see a huge new poster announcing this fact being plastered over the torn and fading political posters of the revolution. The police and soldiers are methodically closing down all the Political Clubs, goguettes, and print shops in the working class sections of Paris. Men are dragged out of the buildings, lined up against the walls, their papers checked, and some are arrested and carted off in wagons. They complain about the harsh treatment but the police and soldiers just shove them against the wall or HIT THEM WITH THEIR RIFLE BUTTS. Wall posters with political slogans are torn down from the city walls. Print shops and book shops are ransacked with books and papers thrown into the streets to be carted off and burnt. The streets are still filled with the debris left over from the hundreds of barricades which had been erected during the June Days riots. Posters with "The Right to Work" are in tatters and lying on the pavement. Men are sweeping up the rubbish and filling wagons with paving stones, broken pieces of furniture and glass, and carriages. CUT TO: 79 INT. GUILLAUMIN'S OFFICE - DAY 79 Early July 1848. Guillaumin is meeting with the inner core of the Economists group to discuss their next step: Frederic, Michel Chevalier, Charles Coquelin, Gustave, Hortense Cheuvreux, Felicity Guillaumin, Joseph Garnier, Horace Say. GUILLAUMIN Ladies and Gentlemen, it is a sad day for liberty in this city. We have witnessed some extraordinary scenes, ones I never thought I would see in my lifetime. But France has gone mad once again, and once again the military has reacted in the only way it knows how, to shoot and kill their fellow Frenchmen and women. COQUELIN At least the socialist threat has subsided for the moment. GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI That's the problem. It has subsided but not gone for good. We still haven't won the battle of ideas. GUILLAUMIN That is why I have called you all here today. To think about what we do next. But first, we should remember our young friend and comrade Thomas who fell from a soldier's bullet on a barricade not 2 kilometres from where we now stand. Frederic has a tear in his eye and appears to choke. Mme Cheuvreux who is siting next to him squeezes him on the arm to show her support. GUILLAUMIN (CONT'D) The declaration of martial law and the suspension of civil liberties affects us as well as the socialists. We need to marshal our forces for the next phase of the struggle. I call for suggestions. Frederic, any thoughts? FREDERIC Those of us in the Chamber, Wolowski, Faucher, and myself still have our jobs to do. The government's finances are still in a mess so I have to keep pushing for tax and expenditure cuts from within the Finance Committee. Wolowski and Faucher need to keep fighting within the Chamber to keep the socialists from inserting their government funded "right to a job" clause in the new constitutions which is still being debated. GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI That's all very well, but we still have to keep trying to change people's views about the justice and viability of socialism in practice. I want to try writing something aimed at a more popular audience, like Frederic's economic sophisms but longer and more comprehensive. I think he should keep writing his anti-socialist pamphlets as well. The always hit their targets. GUILLAUMIN Coquelin and I were struck by something Joseph said about the difference between "socialism from below" and "socialism from above." We are seeing the destruction of "socialism from below", from the protesters in the street. The police and military will soon put an end to that, along with everybody else's freedoms as well. But what worries me is that the next push for socialism will come from within the Chamber and the government bureaucracy. We are seeing that now in the Chamber with the discussion about the new constitution, but what I really fear the most is if Louis Napoleon becomes President in the December election. He is a born interventionist and if he gets his hands on the levers of power he will create a new kind of bureaucratic state socialism imposed from above. FREDERIC Heaven helps us! MICHEL CHEVALIER Let me add something to the mix. I have been cultivating quite a few friends in high bureaucratic positions whom I think will have senior positions in Louis Napoleon's government, should he get elected in December. I think I can get them around to a free trade position in time. FREDERIC Good luck with that! MICHEL CHEVALIER You'd be surprised what can be achieved with behind the scenes work. FREDERIC Better you than me! That is all I can say! The meeting dissolves into general conversation. CUT TO: 80 INT. CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY HALL - DAY 80 September 1848. All through the late summer and fall of 1848 the Chamber debates the wording of the new Constitution for the Second Republic. The key debate concerns a clause in which the government guarantees the right to a job for all Frenchmen to be paid for by the taxpayers. There is a bitter struggle between the Socialist deputies, like Considerant and Proudhon and Louis Blanc, who wanted the government to guarantee under the constitution the right of every individual to a government (i.e. taxpayer) funded job, and the Economists and liberals in the Chamber, such as Tocqueville, Faucher, Bastiat, and Wolowski, who strenuously opposed this. Lamartine took a middle of the road position believing the government should guarantee each person's "right to existence" but not necessarily the right to a government funded job. The President of the Constitutional Committee of the Chamber is trying to wind up its deliberations. PRESIDENT OF THE CONSTITUTIONAL COMMITTEE Citizens. It has been a long, hot summer and we must conclude our business so we can make our final recommendations to the full Chamber on the wording of these key passages in the Constitution. I wish to enter into the record a statement from Citizen Louis Blanc who had been a member of this Committee before he was disciplined by the Chamber and forced into exile for his role in the June Days uprising. The Reporter will read his statement. REPORTER Citizen Blanc states the following: "Socialism predated the February Revolution but blossomed as a result of it. I was appointed by the Provisional Government to head a Commission for the Workers with the intention of exploring and even to begin implementing a society-wide work program to provide jobs for those hardest hit by the brutal competition which the system of laissez-faire has unleashed upon us. It is clear that the intent of the Provisional Government was to guarantee the "right to a job" of all French citizens. It is the duty of this Committee to implement this wish by enshrining it in the Constitution of the new Republic. My economist opponents claim that the Constitution should only protect the "freedom of working" but they ignore that a "right" has no meaning unless one has the power to act. In this case the right to seek work means nothing if there is no work to be done, or no tools to do it with, or no credit to invest in creating new jobs. Only the State can guarantee this power or capacity to work for all its citizens, not just the propertied and the wealthy. Thus it is our duty to guarantee this right to our people in our new constitution." PRESIDENT OF THE CONSTITUTIONAL COMMITTEE Thnak you. I now call upon Citizen Alexis de Tocqueville. TOCQUEVILLE Citizen Blanc's theory of the "right to a job" guaranteed by the state, or I should say, by the ordinary taxpayers of France, is socialism, pure and simple. It may be the aim of a small minority of people within the Provisional Government, but as the April elections showed very clearly, it is not the view held by the majority of Frenchmen. I put it to you that if we enshrine the "right to a job" in the Constitution we will have laid the foundations for fully fledged socialism in this country, if not today then sometime tomorrow. The socialists attack, either directly or indirectly, the principle of private property. Some like Citizen Proudhon have called property "theft" and others see in it the origin of all the ills of the world. Their plan for government funded workshops and job creation is an attack on property because in order to fund these schemes they have to confiscate the private property of others to pay for the wages and the tools of these workers. Not only is socialism an attack on property it is also an attack on personal liberty and shows complete contempt for the individual. Socialists hold that the State must not only act as the director of society, but must further be master of each man, and not only master, but keeper and trainer. In doing this, the socialist government will be creating a new system of serfdom. Therefore, in my opinion, if we wish to prevent the creation of this new socialist state we must act now and prevent the insertion into the new Constitution of any government guaranteed right to a job and all the consequences for liberty that this entails. PRESIDENT OF THE CONSTITUTIONAL COMMITTEE Thank you. I next call Citizen Bastiat. FREDERIC Thank you Citizen President. If one understands by the phrase right to work as the right of working (which implies the right to enjoy the fruit of one's labor), then one can have no doubt on the matter. As far as I'm concerned, I have never written two lines which did not have as their purpose the defence of this notion. But if one means by the right to work that an individual has the right to demand of the state that it take care of him, provide him with a job and a wage by force, then under no circumstances does this bizarre thesis bear up to close inspection. Do I have the right to demand of one of my fellow citizens that he provide me with a job and a wage by force? This right would obviously violate his right to property. And, if I do not have this right, and if none of the other citizens who make up the community have it either, then how can we create it when one group of people exercises it over another group through the intermediary of the State? My goodness! Pierre does not have the right to demand by force that Paul supply him with a job and a wage; but if the two of them establish a common force paid for at common expence, does Pierre then have the right to call upon this force, to use it against Paul, so that the latter is forced to supply him with a job? By creating this common force, the right to work is born for Pierre and the right to property is dead for Paul! What confusion! What word play! It is for this reason that I strongly object to the inclusion of the "right to a job" clause in the new Constitution. PRESIDENT OF THE CONSTITUTIONAL COMMITTEE Thank you Citizen Bastiat. Finally, I wish to call upon Citizen Lamartine to conclude this session. LAMARTINE Thank you citizen President. We have heard two extreme views presented here today. One calls for the state to assume almost complete control over property and labour in the name of ending the free market's brutal and destructive competition in order to guarantee a minimum of comfort provided by having some minimum of paid employment. On the other hand, we have heard others who believe that any interference by the state in the economic activities of individuals is a profound violation of their natural right to property and liberty which should be avoided at all costs. I think I speak for the majority of this Committee when I say I believe there is a middle ground which we should consider seriously. Property is not an absolute! Applause breaks out among a majority of those on the Committee. Lamartine smiles as he sees he is winning over his colleagues. LAMARTINE (CONT'D) It is capable of and in fact needs to be improved when there are glaring inequalities or temporary hardships. I believe the new Constitution and the new government which will spring from it must have the power and should have the duty to guarantee the right to existence, the right to live, to all its citizens, regardless of class. This means it must have the power to care for the old and infirm, the destitute, and the temporarily unemployed. It must live up to the grand principles which have driven our Revolution: Liberty, Equality, Fraternity. It should never be tempted to abandon them and replace them with two other vile words "Buying and Selling". That is not what our Republic should stand for! There is very loud applause after he has finished speaking. Tocqueville and Bastiat shake their heads in disbelief that their ally from the free trade movement would make such concession to the socialist minority on the Committee. PRESIDENT OF THE CONSTITUTIONAL COMMITTEE Citizen Lamartine I believe is correct when he said that he speaks for the majority of the Committee when he recommends that the phrase "right to a job" should be replaced by the phrase "right to existence" for those who are too old or sick to care for themselves, and for those who are in temporary hardship. I move that we make this recommendation to the Chamber in our final report. All those in favour? THE MAJORITY OF THE COMMITTEE MEMBERS Aye! PRESIDENT OF THE CONSTITUTIONAL COMMITTEE The "Ayes" have it. Bastiat turns to Tocqueville as the Committee members leave the room. FREDERIC Well said. We stopped the hard core socialists from having their way, but it looks like socialism is coming in through the back door this time. TOCQUEVILLE I fear it will. I fear it will. 81 INT. HORTENSE CHEUVREUX'S HOME - DAY 81 September 1848. Frederic arrives at the Cheuvreux's house, he knocks and is admitted by a servant. SERVANT Monsieur Bastiat is here, madame. MME CHEUVREUX How nice to see you Frederic, do come in! To what do I owe this pleasure? Have you come to amuse me with some of your bons mots? FREDERIC I'm afraid not Hortense. I would like a private word with you if I may? They enter the drawing room and sit facing each other. FREDERIC (CONT'D) Hortense, I have some bad news. I have a serious throat condition. MME CHEUVREUX Oh my goodness! How serious? FREDERIC Very serious. I may not have long to live the doctor tells me. Hortense jumps out of her chair to embrace Frederic. MME CHEUVREUX How long? FREDERIC Perhaps two years. MME CHEUVREUX No! No! That can't be! FREDERIC That is why I have come to ask you for your help. MME CHEUVREUX Anything Frederic! What can I do? She pulls herself together after the initial shock and becomes much more serious. FREDERIC As you know, there are a couple of projects I want to finish before the end comes. MME CHEUVREUX I know. Especially that damn treatise which you never seem to be able to finish. FREDERIC Exactly. I can't seem to get the free time to work on it without distraction. MME CHEUVREUX We have the perfect place for you. Casimir and I have a hunting lodge in the Saint-Cloud woods outside the city. We hardly ever use it. I can set you up there for as long as you like. FREDERIC That sounds perfect! MME CHEUVREUX But you have to promise me one thing Frederic. FREDERIC What is that? MME CHEUVREUX You must finish that damn treatise! I'm sick of hearing about it. FREDERIC I promise. It WILL be the last thing I ever do. I'll make sure you get the first copy off the press. MME CHEUVREUX Signed by you of course. FREDERIC Of course! She goes over to him and reaches for his hand. He squeezes her hand in gratitude. CUT TO: 82 INT. BUTARD LODGE - DAY 82 Early summer 1849. Hortense comes to see how Frederic is progressing with his treatise. He is PLAYING HIS CELLO in the sitting room when there is a knock at the door of the Hunting Lodge. FREDERIC Come in Hortense! MME CHEUVREUX I didn't mean to disturb you. I've come to see how you are settling in. Do you have everything you need? FREDERIC Yes, almost everything. I miss my daily newspapers. Thomas used to bring them to me every morning. MME CHEUVREUX I'll have them sent to you. FREDERIC I can't thank you enough for helping me like this. It is a beautiful place to read and write. MME CHEUVREUX I thought you would like it. Hortense moves over to his desk to look at the papers he had been working on. We can see the BOTTLE OF LAUDANUM he uses to ease the pain of his coughing on the desk. FREDERIC I know what you are going to ask. How is my treatise coming along? She sits in a chair next to the long desk which faces out the French doors into the woods. FREDERIC (CONT'D) My plan is to have volume one finished by the end of the summer. That is the first pile. The second pile are notes and sketches for the second volume. Who knows when that will be finished. MME CHEUVREUX Guillaumin will be so pleased to get this! And the third pile? FREDERIC You weren't supposed to see that. It is my most recent popular work. Hortense picks up the third pile and begins to leaf through it. MME CHEUVREUX So, you have found some more sophisms which need to be refuted. You really are incorrigable! She begins to read out a passage. MME CHEUVREUX (CONT'D) "In the sphere of economics an action, a habit, an institution or a law engenders not just one effect but a series of effects. Of these effects only the first is immediate; it is revealed simultaneously with its cause, it is seen. The others merely occur successively, they are not seen; we are lucky if we foresee them." So you are writing about "invisible economics" now? FREDERIC Yes, in a way. Not invisible, but rather, not seen. MME CHEUVREUX I see, if you will pardon the pun. I have to hand it to you Frederic, you have a way with words! He laughs. FREDERIC Thanks! I'll have to see if I can use that joke at your next soirée. They both laugh and look at each other with tenderness tinged with sadness. CUT TO: 83 INT. BUTARD LODGE - DAY 83 It is late afternoon and the sun is streaming in through the large bay windows of the sitting room which looks out into the woods. Hortense and Frederic are sitting in comfortable armchairs sipping wine and talking. Their friendship has been developing steadily over the summer. MME CHEUVREUX Why did you come to Paris Frederic? FREDERIC You know why! To create a free trade movement, abolish trade restrictions, and improve the lives of ordinary French people. MME CHEUVREUX Yes, but that is a task more suitable for a young man, Frederic, not someone your age. They sit without speaking for a while Frederic considers his answer. FREDERIC I'm not that old. MME CHEUVREUX But old enough to have some land and property, some wealth and the comforts that brings, good friends and colleagues who know and respect you. FREDERIC Yes. Again, they sit without speaking for a while. MME CHEUVREUX So why did you leave all that behind? FREDERIC I thought there should be something more to my life than that, as comfortable as it was. He looks at the growing pile of papers on his desk which will one day become his economic treatise. Hortense sees this. MME CHEUVREUX So you thought you had a book in you. That you had something to say. FREDERIC Yes. (he pauses) Maybe two. There is another long pause as they look out the window at a pair of birds pecking at some crumbs lying on the ground. MME CHEUVREUX I think you might be right. That will be something to regret I think. FREDERIC Yes. And there is another regret I have Hortense. ... They continue looking at the pair of birds. A small tear appears in Hortense's eye. They say nothing more. CUT TO: 84 INT. BUTARD LODGE - DAY 84 Frederic works all summer 1849 at a furious pace and completes the 1st volume of Economic Harmonies. We see his work routine, playing the cello, reading, writing, and RIDING HIS HORSE THROUGH THE WOODS when he has a writer's block. Hortense makes one of her regular visits to see how he is progressing. There is a knock at the door of the Hunting Lodge. FREDERIC Come in Hortense! MME CHEUVREUX I have fresh bread and some of your favourite smoked Gascogne ham. Her maid takes a basket into the kitchen and then leaves. FREDERIC Thank you! He takes her by the hand in welcome and then she walks towards his desk to see what he is working on. MME CHEUVREUX How is the wine supply holding up? FREDERIC It is getting a bit of a beating. The words flow when the wine does. MME CHEUVREUX Speaking of words, dare I ask? FREDERIC You have every right to ask after what you have done for me. Take a look, there on the desk. He waves to a large pile of papers on his desk, and coughs as he does so. MME CHEUVREUX So this is volume 1. It looks finished. Well done. Do you mind? She reaches for the pile, sits down and begins reading a chapter. Frederic sits down in a comfortable chair by the window with a glass of wine and stares out at the woods while she reads. The pair of birds are back looking for food together. Every so often she stops to ask him a question on some technical economic matter (she is very knowledgeable) which he answers tersely. MME CHEUVREUX (CONT'D) When you say that all exchanges are the mutual exchange of "a service for a service" how do you measure that? FREDERIC There is an equivalence in the value of the things exchanged. MME CHEUVREUX Not an equality? FREDERIC No. Some time passes in quiet reading. MME CHEUVREUX And how do you measure that equivalence then? FREDERIC The equivalence as judged by the two parties engaged in the exchange at that moment in time. Some more time passes in quiet reading. MME CHEUVREUX Hmm É And land rent you think is just another kind of service? FREDERIC Yes. There is nothing special about the contribution of the soil and the sun to the creation of value. No more than the contribution of steam power or electricity. MME CHEUVREUX Hmm É Dunoyer and the old school won't like this. FREDERIC Too bad É Some more time passes in quiet reading. MME CHEUVREUX You must finish this Frederic. It is very good É FREDERIC Yes, I think so. But there is so much more that needs to be done. Frederic coughs again. Hortense puts her arm around him as he has a VIOLENT COUGHING FIT. She looks at Frederic knowing that he will die before he can finish his treatise. She looks very sad at the prospect. He looks at her showing that he knows this too. CUT TO: 85 INT. BUTARD LODGE - DAY 85 Garnier visits Frederic to encourage him to give one of the keynote speeches at the Peace Congress he is organising in August 1849. GARNIER I know you are tired and not well Frederic, but you did promise me you would speak at the Peace Congress. FREDERIC I know I did. GARNIER Victor Hugo has agreed to act as President of the Congress. Richard Cobden will be there with a large British contingent. You must speak. Everyone is counting on it. FREDERIC I have already said what I want to say in my articles. I don't have to say it again. GARNIER Yes you do. You have to keep saying it until things change. And you have to say it before this audience. FREDERIC Why? GARNIER Because you are an economist and too many of them are well-meaning religious moralists who don't understand the economic imperative of disarmament, or the dire political consequences which will follow if we don't disarm and cut taxes. FREDERIC I just hope my voice can stand up to the strain. Let me think about it Joseph. I want to go for a ride to clear my head. CUT TO: 86 EXT. SAINT CLOUD FOREST - DAY 86 Frederic needs to think about whether he can follow through with his promise to give one of the keynote speeches at the forthcoming Peace Congress. He goes riding through the Saint Cloud woods where he sees the MILITARY FORTIFICATION WALL which encloses Paris on its western side. As he rides beside the wall for several miles he passes the MASSIVE NEW FORT at Mont-Valérien and becomes angrier and angrier at the waste of time, money, and labour that went into building and paying for the wall, the ring of forts, the conscription of young men into the army and their labour used to build the wall, and all other forms of military spending. By the end of the ride he is determined to give his speech calling for disarmament and tax cuts. CUT TO: 87 INT. SAINT-CECELIA HALL - DAY 87 23 August 1849. The International Peace Congress organised by Joseph Garnier is taking place in a large concert hall, Saint Cecelia Hall, in the centre of Paris. It holds 2,000 people and is full of delegates from England, America, and all over Europe. It is August and it is hot and humid in Paris at that time of year and the hall is packed and stuffy. The President of the Congress is the poet and novelist VICTOR HUGO. Discussion is underway of the five main resolutions before the Congress. RICHARD COBDEN is speaking and is close to concluding. RICHARD COBDEN I have the honour to submit to your consideration a motion condemnatory of loans for warlike purposes. My object is to promote peace by withholding the sinews of war. I propose that this Congress shall make an appeal to the consciences of all those who have money to lend. A murmur of concern at this radical proposition goes around the hall. RICHARD COBDEN (CONT'D) I address myself to those who, by their loans, really hire and pay men who commit atrocities, and we say, "It is you who give strength to the arm which murders innocent women and helpless old age; it is you who supply the torch which reduces to ashes peaceful and inoffensive villages and on your souls will rest the burden of these crimes against humanity." I urge the Congress to vote in favour of the Resolution "The Congress condemns all loans and taxes intended for the prosecution of wars of ambition and conquest." There is loud and enthusiastic cheering from the audience. VICTOR HUGO I thank the Honourable speaker and call for the Vote. Those in favour ... THE DELEGATES Aye! VICTOR HUGO Those against ... (there is silence) The vote for the resolution is carried unanimously. I now call upon our final speaker to address the Congress on the resolution "to call the immediate attention of governments to the necessity of a general and simultaneous disarmament." As I read these words, a sad and bitter thought presents itself to my mind. It results, from a comparison of statistical accounts, that the nations of Europe expend each year for the maintenance of armies a sum amounting to two billion francs, and which, by adding the expense of maintaining establishments of war, amounts to three billion. Add to this the lost produce of the days of work of more than 2,000,000 men Ñ the healthiest, the most vigorous, the youngest, the elite of our population Ñ a produce which you will not estimate at less than one billion francs, and you will be convinced that the standing armies of Europe cost annually more than four billion. Ladies and Gentlemen, peace has now lasted thirty-two years, and yet in thirty-two years the enormous sum of one hundred and twenty-eight billion francs has been expended during a time of peace on account of war! Suppose that the people of Europe, in place of mistrusting each other, had spent this enormous sum on peace instead of war. What if this sum had been given to labour, to intelligence, to industry, to commerce, to navigation, to agriculture, to science, to art? I will let you draw your conclusions. I now call upon a man who is an economist and thus more fit than I am to address these matters, M. Frederic Bastiat who is a Representative of the People in the National Assembly and a Corresponding Member of the French Institute. M. Bastiat! Frederic comes to the podium accompanied by considerable applause. FREDERIC At this stage of the discussion, I shall only take up your time to make a few observations on the subject of disarmament. It is my opinion that the cause of external peace is also that of internal order. A powerful military state is forced to exact heavy taxes, which engender misery, which in its turn engenders the spirit of social disorder and of revolution. These heavy taxes, notwithstanding the best intentions on the part of the legislator, are necessarily most unfairly distributed; whence it follows that great armaments present two causes of revolution Ñ economic misery in the first place, and secondly, the deep feeling that this misery is the result of injustice. He coughs and takes a sip of his laudamum. FREDERIC (CONT'D) The first kind of military taxation that I observe is called conscription. The young man who belongs to a wealthy family, escapes by the payment of two or three thousand francs; the son of an artisan or a labourer, is forced to throw away the seven best years of his life. Can we imagine a more dreadful inequality? Do we not know that it caused the people to revolt even under the Empire, and do we imagine that it can long survive the revolution of February? The second kind of military taxation is indirect taxation. Does the government come directly to us and ask us for a quarter, a third, or a half of our incomes? No: that would be impracticable; and consequently, to arrive at the desired end, it has recourse to a trick, and gets our money from us without our perceiving it, by subjecting us to an indirect tax laid on food. This is a crying injustice inflicted upon the poor to the advantage of the rich. These two kinds of military taxation, conscription and indirect taxation, will lead to the perpetuation and systematization if injustice in this country. And, is it not certain that this injustice will, sooner or later, engender disaffection? disaffection which is all the more dangerous because it is legitimate, because its complaints are well-founded, because it has reason on its side, because it is supported by all men of upright minds and generous hearts, and, at the same time, is cleverly managed by persons whose intentions are less pure, and who seek to make it an instrument for the execution of their ambitious designs. In France because, in consequence of our ancient electoral laws, the wealthy class had the management of public business, the people think that the inequality of the taxes is the fruit of a systematic greed. This is only partly true. It is also the necessary consequence of the increase in the level of taxation. The very nature of things has placed a radical incompatibility between the increased level of taxation and their unequal imposition. There is, then, only one means of diverting from this country the calamities which menace it, and that is, to equalize taxation ; to equalize it, we must reduce it; to reduce it, we must diminish our military force. For this reason, amongst others, I support with all my heart the resolution in favour of a simultaneous disarmament. And if our governments are not willing to take this crucial step, then it is up to the people of the world to do it for them. Let me conclude in the words of our national poet Béranger: "People of the World! While your cities burn, your dictators have the impudence to count and recount with the tip of their mocking sceptres the bodies which have fallen in battle, which history now calls a bloody triumph. People of the World! You go helplessly like poor beasts of burden from one heavy and inhuman yoke to another. People of the World! Form a Holy Alliance, take each other by the hand, and Unite in Opposition!" There is loud and vociferous applause from all the Delegates. Hugo steps forward to call for the vote on the Resolution: VICTOR HUGO Having heard the speaker, I now call for a vote by the Congress on the Resolution "to call the immediate attention of governments to the necessity of a general and simultaneous disarmament". Those in favour? ALL THE CONGRESS DELEGATES Aye! (there is universal agreement) VICTOR HUGO Those against? (silence) The Ayes have it by a unanimous vote. RICHARD COBDEN Mr. President! May I have the floor? VICTOR HUGO The Honourable Mr. Cobden has the floor. RICHARD COBDEN Mr President, now that our proceedings are drawing to a close I would like to call for some English cheers. The large English delegation stand and look towards Cobden. RICHARD COBDEN (CONT'D) Hip! Hip! THE ENGLISH DELEGATION Hooray! Cobden with his hand urges the rest of the Congress to stand and join in. They look very puzzled at this strange English behaviour. RICHARD COBDEN Hip! Hip! THE DELEGATES Hooray! RICHARD COBDEN Hip! Hip! THE DELEGATES Hooray! CUT TO: 88 INT. HORTENSE CHEUVREUX'S SALON - NIGHT 88 A few days after the Peace Congress Frederic attends another of Hortense's soirees where he meets ALEXIS DE TOCQUEVILLE, THE MINISTER OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS. Frederic is sitting in one of the rooms surrounded by a small group of well dressed guests. GUEST 1 M. Bastiat, what was that passage you read out at the end of your speech the other day? FREDERIC It was from a song by Béranger. GUEST 1 Oh, that rabble rouser! Is he still alive? FREDERIC Yes. In fact he was elected to the Constituent Assembly when I was. GUEST 1 Perhaps you should have sung it? That would have been amusing. FREDERIC I'll sing it now if you like. The guests are a little alarmed at this prospect. Frederic begins SINGING the refrain very quietly. FREDERIC (CONT'D) "People of the World! Form a Holy Alliance, take each other by the hand, and Unite in Opposition!" But has to stop abruptly in pain. FREDERIC (CONT'D) I'm sorry. My singing voice is not good right now. GUEST 2 I'm not convinced that songs and fables are the best way to examine serious matters like foreign policy and expenditure on the army. FREDERIC Oh, I don't know. It seems to get people's attention. You know La Fontaine has a lot to say about government expenditure. GUEST 2 I can't imagine he did. He wrote fables and children's stories. FREDERIC Do you know the one about the weasel and the granary? GUEST 2 Of course. Every child does. FREDERIC What do you think the weasel represents, the weasel who breaks into the farmer's granary through a crack in the wall, gets fat eating his grain, and then can't get back out through the crack when the farmer comes looking to kill him with his spade? GUEST 2 I have no idea. FREDERIC The military which eats up so much of the taxpayers money each year. GUEST 1 And the farmer is the angry taxpayer? FREDERIC Exactly! Every weasel needs to remember that one day the farmer will come after him with a spade. GUEST 2 That's absurd! It is just a children's story. FREDERIC If you say so. Please excuse me ladies and gentlemen, I need to get a drink. As Frederic leaves the room Alexis de Tocqueville, the Foreign Minister, comes up to him. TOCQUEVILLE Excuse me M. Bastiat. Could I take a moment of your time? FREDERIC Of course. Tocqueville leads him into an adjacent room and closes the door. They sit down. TOCQUEVILLE There are some in the government who were very impressed with your speech at the Peace Congress. FREDERIC Thank you. I put a lot of thought into it and seemed to be well received. TOCQUEVILLE I have been asked to see if you would be prepared to go to England to speak to Mr. Cobden about the possibility of a disarmament agreement between France and Britain. You seem to have a very good relationship with Cobden ... FREDERIC For some years now. TOCQUEVILLE Good. This meeting would have to be an unofficial one at the moment, as there are still people in the government who are opposed to this. FREDERIC Including our "Prince-President?" TOCQUEVILLE Perhaps. At this moment. That is all I can say. We want to find out from Mr. Cobden who in the British government might also be interested in pursuing this and what their strength is in the House. We would also like to know how much effort Mr. Cobden would be prepared to make to take this matter further. FREDERIC I see. I am willing to do this but I need to know what support you have in the cabinet. TOCQUEVILLE Naturally. We can talk about that later. CUT TO: 89 EXT. THE ENGLISH CHANNEL - DAY 89 Early October 1849. Frederic is sitting on the deck of the boat as it makes its way across the choppy waters of the channel. We see well dressed English men and women strolling about. CUT TO: 90 INT. THE REFORM CLUB - DAY 90 Frederic has crossed the Channel to carry out Foreign Minister Tocqueville's request to speak to Cobden about disarmament. Frederic and Cobden are meeting in one of the BEAUTIFUL WOOD PANELLED ROOMS in the Reform Club in London. FREDERIC This is an impressive building. I imagine a lot of political reforms have been hatched from within these walls. RICHARD COBDEN There certainly have been, and I expect a lot more will be! Like us here today. Tell me, what does M. Tocqueville have in mind? FREDERIC Well, he has not been completely forthcoming about what he really wants. It is still a bit mysterious. My hunch is that he and a group of liberal-minded politicians, myself included, are worried what will happen as our "Prince-President" consolidates his power. RICHARD COBDEN Isn't he limited to only one term in office? FREDERIC Yes, but he is a Bonaparte don't forget and the Bonapartes believe that they are born to rule. RICHARD COBDEN In the name of the people! FREDERIC Of course. (they laugh) Always in the name of the people! RICHARD COBDEN And the glory of France! FREDERIC And the glory of France! (they laugh again) But there are rumours that he will try to legally get around the constitutional limits on a second term, and if that fails, since he has already crowned himself "Prince President", he could see himself as France's next emperor. RICHARD COBDEN God help us! FREDERIC Indeed! And we know what the Bonapartes do when they get hold of an empire. RICHARD COBDEN Start wars and seize territory! (they laugh again) We shouldn't laugh but they are so damn predictable, these tyrants. So Tocqueville thinks that he might be able to head this off with our help? FREDERIC Yes. He was appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs in June but he despises the Prince-President and he knows that. So Tocqueville could get rolled at any time. Hence this quick trip. He thinks that if you and I can arrange something he could then present that as a fait accompli to the President who likes the popular acclaim it would bring and then he would move on to something else. He is easily distracted. RICHARD COBDEN As I see it, the problem with the Liberals and the Reform group in Parliament is that they are split into a free trade and peace faction, which would be very much in favour of a disarmament agreement between France and England, and a liberal but still pro-colony and pro-empire group which are not in favour. The problem with any disarmament proposal is that the Tories would use it as a wedge to split the two reformist groups. It would be very tricky. FREDERIC I see. RICHARD COBDEN Furthermore, if your President were to declare himself an Emperor the British public would be outraged and all bets would be off, on this side of the Channel anyway. The hatred for old "Boney" still runs deep in this country I'm afraid. FREDERIC I'm not surprised. And if Tocqueville were to be dumped by the Prince-President, all bets would be off on our side as well. RICHARD COBDEN Look, I'll sound out some of my colleagues to see what they think. It is probably worth a chance even if it is a small one. FREDERIC Thanks. It is worth a try. On another matter the free trade movement is dead in France at the moment. RICHARD COBDEN Yes, I know. You were so close in 1847. FREDERIC Not as close as we thought. But you should keep an eye out for Michel Chevalier. He is a very solid free trader and he is close to the Prince-President. Hard to believe I know, but he is! Some time in the future you might be able to play the same trick Tocqueville is trying to do with disarmament. RICHARD COBDEN Go over the French people's heads and go straight to the President? FREDERIC Yes. Chevalier would be your man to go to in Paris. RICHARD COBDEN Thanks! I'll keep that in mind. CUT TO: 91 INT. CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY HALL - DAY 91 November 1849. Frederic's health is rapidly failing and he is finding it harder to speak in the Chamber of Deputies. In one of his last speeches in the Chamber he joins in the debate concerning the Article 415 of the Civil Code which bans workers from forming unions to demand higher wages and better working conditions. REPRESENTATIVE MORIN has proposed an amendment to the Code. REPRESENTATIVE MORIN Citizen Representatives, the amendments before you are designed to rectify a glaring injustice in the Civil Code which punishes individuals who voluntarily wish to form an association or a "union", to discuss matters relating to their work with their peers, and to negotiate freely and peacefully with others over working conditions and pay. There are catcalls and booing from the Right of the Chamber and cheers from the Left. REPRESENTATIVE MORIN (CONT'D) The way Article 415 of the Code is presently phrased it punishes any worker who attempts to raise their wages and improve their conditions regardless of how they go about doing so. It punishes the peaceful and voluntary acts of most workers exactly the same way it punishes the minority of workers who engage in violence and intimidation to achieve these same ends. Under the current law what is forbidden and punished is the very act of seeking an improvement in conditions and pay and not how that might be achieved. My amendment is as follows: "to punish only those individuals who attempt to raise wages" ... There is cheering from the Right of the Chamber. REPRESENTATIVE MORIN (CONT'D) "or lower wages" ... There is cheering from the Left. REPRESENTATIVE MORIN (CONT'D) Let me finish! ... "by violence or threats of violence or other individual or collective means of intimidation, by either party." The law should punish only those who engage in violence, not those who exercise their rights to freedom of association and freedom of speech, for example by forming a trade union. There is opposition coming from both sides of the Chamber. SPEAKER OF THE ASSEMBLY Thank you Citizen Representative Morin. I now call upon Citizen Bastiat to address the Chamber. FREDERIC Thank you Monsieur Speaker. I beg the Chamber's patience as I struggle with my failing voice. I hope I can be heard. A shout of "speak up!" is heard from the back of the Chamber. FREDERIC (CONT'D) The last time I addressed the Chamber on labour matters was when I opposed the inclusion of the "right to a job" clause in the new Constitution. There are boos from the Left of the Chamber. FREDERIC (CONT'D) I am pleased to say we were partly successful in doing that. There are boos from the Left and cheers from the Right. FREDERIC (CONT'D) But what I want to do here today is to speak in support of Citizen Morin's amendments because, and this might surprise the Chamber, for EXACTLY the same reasons as I opposed the right to a job clause last year. Interjections are coming from sides of the Chamber. FREDERIC (CONT'D) Let me explain! He takes a sip from his bottle of Laudanum as his voice begins to fail from the pain of speaking so loudly. FREDERIC (CONT'D) The law wishes to punish a man for refusing to work for another under a certain set of conditions. Does a man not have the right to refuse to sell his work at a rate that does not suit him? There are cheers from the Left. FREDERIC (CONT'D) Some will say that this is true when it concerns an individual, but not true when it concerns a group of men in association. But, sirs, an action that is innocent in itself does not become criminal because it is multiplied by a certain number of men. I cannot therefore see how it can be said that the stoppage of work is a guilty act. If one man has the right to say to another "I will not work under such and such a condition", two or three thousand men have the same right; they have the right to withdraw. That is a natural right which ought to be a legal right as well. There are more cheers from the Left. FREDERIC (CONT'D) When I am standing before an employer, we discuss the price, the one he is offering me does not suit me, I commit no act of violence and withdraw, and you tell me that it is I who am undermining the freedom of the employer because I am damaging his business! Take care lest what you are proclaiming is none other than slavery. For what is a slave if not a man obliged by law to work under conditions that he rejects? Calls of "Hear! Hear!" from the Left. Frederic begins to have a coughing fit but recovers enough to conclude his speech. FREDERIC (CONT'D) Excuse me Citizen Representatives. Let me conclude by saying that, in practice, your law is full of inequalities; it does not apply exactly and proportionally to both parties whose antagonism you wish to remove. There is one way to remove antagonism between two parties: by treating them in an equal manner, and prohibiting force and coercion in all its forms. This is why I support Citizen Morin's amendments and urge you to do as well. SPEAKER OF THE ASSEMBLY Thank you Citizen Bastiat. And I now call for the vote on Citizen Morin's proposed amendments to the labour law. Those in favor? About one third of the Chamber mainly from the Left say "Aye." SPEAKER OF THE ASSEMBLY (CONT'D) Those against? About two thirds of the Chamber, mainly from the Right and Centre, say "Nay." SPEAKER OF THE ASSEMBLY (CONT'D) I think the "Nays" have it. The amendments are rejected by the Chamber. 92 INT. BUTARD LODGE - DAY 92 It is summer 1850 and Frederic is again living in the Cheuvreux's Hunting Lodge over the summer trying to finish his last writing projects, the long pamphlet "What is Seen and What is Not Seen" and "The Law". Frederic is working quietly at his desk when he hears a knock at the door. Hortense and Gustave enter. Frederic is noticeably WEAKER AND SICKER. MME CHEUVREUX Good morning Frederic. I have brought you some lunch and some good news. GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI Hello Frederic! FREDERIC Thank you Hortense. Hello Gustave. MME CHEUVREUX Guillaumin loves the manuscript and it is being typeset. The book will be released very soon. FREDERIC That is very good news. It is relief to know it will be printed. At least part 1. MME CHEUVREUX How is part 2 coming along? FREDERIC Not so good. I haven't touched it in a while. It is too hard to focus on something that complex. So I am working on something else which is simpler. MME CHEUVREUX Is there anything I can get to help you? FREDERIC Not right now. Hortense turns to Frederic's desk and picks up his manuscript for "What is Seen and What is Not Seen" and begins reading while Gustave and Frederic talk. GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI Guillaumin showed me the manuscript of your treatise. There is some radically new stuff there Frederic I'd like to talk to you about. FREDERIC Of course. Take a seat. GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI You know your new theory about population will antagonise the Malthusians like me and Joseph Garnier. FREDERIC I know, but I think you are wrong about population growth inevitably leading to increasing misery among the poor. The facts just don't support it. GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI It has been an historical fact for centuries. FREDERIC May be, but not any more. You underestimate the productive power of free people engaging in trade with each other. This will lead to an explosion in agricultural productivity which will make all of Malthus' predictions false. Just look at what has been happening in America right now. GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI Yes, but that might be the exception. Here the poor and the working class have to be very careful about not having too many children or the Malthusian trap will catch them in its jaws. FREDERIC But you and Garnier also underestimate the ability of people to take action to plan their lives rationally. For goodness' sake, they are not like plants or stupid rabbits just reproducing mindlessly. They are thinking, acting individuals who can plan their lives, if they are left free to do so. GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI Frederic, you are now the one exaggerating. Most poor people are not like that. Hortense interrupts their conversation. MME CHEUVREUX Frederic, I see you have finished your pamphlet on "the seen and the unseen". FREDERIC Yes. MME CHEUVREUX Gustave, you should take a look at this and leave poor old Malthus for later. She hands the manuscript of "What is Seen and What is Not Seen" to Gustave who has not seen it before. He begins reading it with growing interest. MME CHEUVREUX (CONT'D) (addressing Frederic) I see you have applied your idea of the unseen to several case studies, even the benefits of cutting the size of the army! I like that. It works well. FREDERIC Thank you. I was worried that it was too long for a popular work and not long enough to be a serious work of theory. MME CHEUVREUX The opening chapter is very clever. What do you think Gustave? GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI I think it is the best thing he has ever written! The essence of his entire theory is in that one short chapter, "The Broken Window." But I don't like the title. FREDERIC What do you mean you don't like the title? GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI "The seen and the unseen" is too poetic, too literary. It hides a deeper theoretical principle which is at work, so it needs a more scientific sounding title. FREDERIC So you think that without a fancy name, the theorists won't take my idea seriously? GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI Quite likely. FREDERIC What should I call it then? GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI I don't know. But what you are saying is that everything we do has a cost, as well as everything we don't do, or choose not to do, for whatever reason. FREDERIC Yes. GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI So it needs a name or a title. Perhaps "Bastiat's Law"? FREDERIC That sounds vain and stupid. I'll leave the title as it is. GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI Whatever you call it, it is very good Frederic. Frederic begins coughing violently and Hortense goes to him to comfort him and help him with his medicine. MME CHEUVREUX Gustave, perhaps we should go and let Frederic rest for a while. GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI Of course. Frederic, I really like the essay. The treatise I'm not so sure about. I'll have to think some more about it. Frederic waves them away as he coughs. They both leave. A few days later Frederic has another visitor. It is the economist Michel Chevalier. MICHEL CHEVALIER May I come in? FREDERIC Of course! Do come in my friend. MICHEL CHEVALIER Gustave told me about your essay on "the seen and the unseen". I wanted to take a look for myself. FREDERIC By all means. Here it is. I'll get us a glass of wine while you read through it. MICHEL CHEVALIER Thank you. He sits down to read. Some time passes as they drink and Chevalier reads the essay. Eventually he looks and says to Frederic MICHEL CHEVALIER (CONT'D) I want to say that I envy you Frederic. FREDERIC (astonished) You envy me? It is I who have envied you. You are the one with the prestigious chair in political economy at the university. I have only ever given a few lectures to a handful of students at the law school. What I would have given for a proper chair! MICHEL CHEVALIER That may be. But I envy your ability to write and you have some very original ideas. You are never dull and dry like I am, like most economists. You could make even a treatise on public works witty and amusing to read. FREDERIC I suppose I could, but I've never tried! (they both laugh) MICHEL CHEVALIER Would you be willing to give a guest lecture to my students on this? He lifts up the pamphlet "What is Seen and What is Not Seen". MICHEL CHEVALIER (CONT'D) I want them to hear this. FREDERIC So you have got your chair back safely after all that nonsense last year? MICHEL CHEVALIER Yes, the socialists lost that battle thank goodness. FREDERIC I would like to talk to your students. I like talking to young people. But I'm afraid I cannot talk for very long in one stretch. MICHEL CHEVALIER I understand. We can circulate the paper beforehand and you can just speak to it. FREDERIC That sounds good. Michel, I have something to ask you. MICHEL CHEVALIER Yes, of course. FREDERIC Do you think we ever had a realistic chance of getting a free trade bill adopted by the Chamber three years ago? Chevalier pauses before answering. MICHEL CHEVALIER No I don't think we did. The vested interests who controlled the Chamber would never have allowed it. And they didn't. No ruling elite has ever given up its privileges unless they absolutely had to. FREDERIC The English elite were forced to give up their privileges because of pressure from below from the new voting middle class. MICHEL CHEVALIER Which we didn't have in France then. Now that we do, they are in love with another Napoleon, not with free trade. FREDERIC So where do we go from here? MICHEL CHEVALIER Well, in my view the best chance France has for free trade is for it to come from the top down. FREDERIC You mean from our so-called "Prince President"? MICHEL CHEVALIER Yes. If we can stop him from starting too many wars! (they both laugh) But that is where I have some skill. I have lots of contacts inside his bureaucracies and I think I can eventually appeal to his vanity and show him what a prestigious thing it would for France to have a free trade treaty with Britain. FREDERIC That is something else I envy about you Michel. Your patience to take the long view and spend time working with these boring bureaucrats. MICHEL CHEVALIER Yes, it can be boring at times. But I think we will get there one day. FREDERIC When I am gone, you need to talk to Richard Cobden. He is on our side and understands French politics very well. Maybe the two of you can work something out, behind the scenes. The two men sit looking out the window at the woods and continue their conversation for some time. CUT TO: 93 INT. THE LECTURE HALL AT THE COLLEGE DE FRANCE - DAY 93 September 1850. Frederic is in the beautiful and ornate lecture theatre at France's most prestigious university, the Collge de France. He is speaking to about 50 students who are sitting on steeply inclined benches above him. His voice is faint and he stops now and again to cough and sip from his bottle of laudanum which is resting on the lectern. He has been accompanied by Hortense who assists him with his papers. FREDERIC Gentlemen, you have my paper before you. What does an economist see when someone, anyone, buys something, like a new window to replace a broken one? A couple of the students raise their hands. Frederic picks one at random. STUDENT 1 He sees money and a window pane changing hands between the seller and the buyer. FREDERIC Yes. What doesn't the economist see? The students look a bit puzzled. Frederic picks another at random. FREDERIC (CONT'D) You in the back row. STUDENT 2 I'm not sure. What do you mean? FREDERIC Think about it. We see the buyer or the seller doing one thing. But what aren't they doing? You on the left! He points to a third student who visibly squirms. STUDENT 3 Um ... They aren't buying or selling something else? FREDERIC Precisely! They are not buying or selling a book to read, or a chicken to eat for dinner. But there is a third alternative you haven't mentioned. What is it? There is an embarrassed silence. FREDERIC (CONT'D) Come on, what is it? What else could they be doing with their money? What else could the buyer be doing? There is continued silence. FREDERIC (CONT'D) He could be doing what you are all doing, which is nothing! There is an audible groan as the students realise how obvious the answer was. FREDERIC (CONT'D) He could refrain from engaging in any exchange and just keep looking out of his broken window and keep the money in his purse, or he could deposit it in a savings bank. There are so many opportunities for economic actors to do or not do things and each alternative has its own costs and benefits. A good economist must take note of these things. They must go looking for them if they are not obvious at a first glance. They may well be "unseen" to the casual viewer. The lecture goes on like this for a while before Chevalier sees that Frederic is getting tired and calls the lecture to an end. MICHEL CHEVALIER M. Bastiat is getting tired. So we will bring this session to an end. Please join me in thanking him for his unique perspective. They applaud him and begin leaving the lecture theatre. Hortense helps Frederic gather his papers and gives him her arm to help him walk. She says to him as they are walking out: MME CHEUVREUX You were born to do this Frederic. Frederic nods sadly as they leave. She squeezes his arm. CUT TO: 94 INT. GUILLAUMIN'S OFFICE - EVENING 94 Late summer 1850. The economists have gathered to celebrate the publication of Frederic's latest works which are hot off the press, volume 1 of his theoretical treatise Economic Harmonies and his booklet on popular economics What is Seen and What is Not Seen. Copies are displayed on tables around the room. The mood is both happy and sad as they realise his health has been rapidly deteriorating over the summer. There is quite a hum of noise in the Guillaumin offices as people drink and eat hors d'oeuvres. GUILLAUMIN If I may have your attention! The noise subdues. GUILLAUMIN (CONT'D) Thank you. We are here this evening to celebrate the publication of Frederic's long awaited book, Economic Harmonies. There is a cheer around the room. GUILLAUMIN (CONT'D) We think it will have a big impact on the profession. Let us raise our glasses to salute Frederic's achievement. EVERYONE IN THE ROOM Here's to Frederic! Bravo Frederic! Etc. GUILLAUMIN But that is not all. If working on that was not enough, Frederic also completed over the summer what many of us think is his best work of popular economics - the booklet What is Seen and What is Not Seen. EVERYONE IN THE ROOM Well done Frederic! Bravo! Etc. GUILLAUMIN We are hoping it will sell like hot cakes so get your copy now while we still have some! I believe Frederic would like to say a few words. Everybody turns towards Frederic who is standing off to the side of the room with his hand holding the edge of a table covered with his books for balance. FREDERIC Thanks to all of you for your help and encouragement over the past few months. I couldn't have done it without you. Thanks to Guillaumin for sticking with me in spite of the delays. He knows only too well how easily I get distracted. There is laughter in the room. FREDERIC (CONT'D) But I made it! Here's to Guillaumin and Felicity! He raises his glass and is joined by the others in the room. FREDERIC (CONT'D) Now I have some less happy news. My doctor has instructed me to leave Paris and spend the winter in a sunnier clime. There are some sounds of dismay from the group. FREDERIC (CONT'D) I have decided on Rome. The climate and the architecture should help me convalesce. So I want to say farewell to you all and thank you for putting up with a brash, naive man from the provinces like me who came here just over 5 years ago. You made me feel welcome and tolerated my strange Gascogne ways. There is laughter around the room. FREDERIC (CONT'D) I hope to see you in the spring! Many thanks! Oh, one more thing. I'd be happy to sign copies of my book. As an economist, I can assure you that it should increase the resale price should ever you want to part with it! Or not, as the case may be! There is more laughter and people resume eating and drinking and talking. Frederic sees Hortense and goes over to her with a copy of Economic Harmonies in his hand. FREDERIC (CONT'D) Here is your copy Hortense. MME CHEUVREUX Thank you Frederic! I knew you would do it. FREDERIC I wasn't so sure. Without your help, probably not. Thank you. Hortense opens the book and sees that it has been inscribed, then shuts it. MME CHEUVREUX When you get back from Rome we will have to get to work finishing volume 2. Frederic says nothing but looks sadly at her. He then sits down in a chair next to a table with copies of his books and begins signing copies as people come up to him to congratulate him. Hortense reads the inscription he wrote for her and a tear comes to her eyes. It says "TO MY MARIANNE, who made it all possible, love Frederic." She looks up to see him but he has gone. CUT TO: 95 I/E. BUTARD LODGE - DAY 95 Early Autumn 1850. We see Frederic writing beautifully written invitations to a lunch at the Hunting Lodge to his young comrades who worked with him on the barricades in June 1848 - Gustave, Joseph. We see the letters being hand delivered by a messenger. On the day we see Gustave and Joseph walking up the path to the Lodge with their invitations in hand. GARNIER I wonder want this is all about. Most unusual. GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI We will see in a moment. They knock on the door. It is opened by Hortense's maid. MAID Come in gentlemen. M. Bastiat is expecting you in the courtyard. As they walk through the Lodge they see that all of Frederic's books and papers have been packed up ready to be moved. The library is almost empty and we can see another maid in the bedroom packing clothes into a travel trunk. They walk out into the courtyard where they see a table set for lunch and Frederic and Hortense waiting for them. FREDERIC How good to see you Joseph, Gustave. He shakes their hands vigorously. FREDERIC (CONT'D) I hope you have brought your appetites with you. Hortense has arranged quite a banquet for us. They nod to Hortense who tries to hide the fact that she has wiped away a tear from her face. GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI Madame! GARNIER How nice to see you! Hortense nods and then leaves to supervise serving the lunch. FREDERIC Now for some wine. I have some of my special 1839 vintage from my vineyard in Mugron. I have been keeping it for a moment like this. GARNIER Thank you. That would be excellent. Frederic pours them both a glass. FREDERIC Every time I drink this I can taste the Gascogne sunshine. GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI I can see what you mean! There is some more small talk for a while. Some hors d'oeuvres are served by the maid and then Hortense announces that lunch is about to be served. Frederic seats them. FREDERIC Gustave would you please sit here. You there Joseph. Hortense, would you sit here. Frederic walks around an empty chair and sits at the head of the table. Gustave and Joseph look at each other puzzled. He suddenly rises to make a toast. FREDERIC (CONT'D) You must be wondering why I invited you here today. Two years ago we were on the barricades together fighting both the socialists and the French army. We defeated one but not the other. One of us fell. He waves his glass towards the empty chair. FREDERIC (CONT'D) Young Thomas. Here's to young Thomas! Joseph and Gustave also raise their glasses in memory of Thomas. FREDERIC (CONT'D) And to what might have been! He looks towards Hortense and their eyes meet. He sits down, and they begin eating. As they drink the tone becomes more jovial as they reminisce about events two years ago. GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI Frederic, do remember the time when you wanted to get permission from the government to start a revolutionary magazine? How absurd was that? (they all laugh) FREDERIC That wasn't absurd. The rule of law should also apply in the middle of a revolution. MME CHEUVREUX What do you mean Gustave? FREDERIC (a bit embarrassed) Oh, don't tell her. MME CHEUVREUX Please do! GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI Well, it was the day after Louis Philippe's government fell in February. The three of us had decided to start a street magazine to hand out to the rioters in the street. Frederic announced that we had to go to the Mayor's office to get permission from the censors so our newspaper could be legal. When we got to the Mayor's office it was in complete chaos. The revolutionaries were looting it from top to bottom. Official papers were everywhere. Only when he saw that did Frederic agree we could go ahead without getting government permission. There was no longer any government to give permission! But Frederic still wanted to be "a law abiding revolutionary"! They all laugh, even Frederic. The happy reminiscing continues for some time. As they get tipsy Frederic leans over to his two comrades and begins to talk in a softer voice. FREDERIC You know, when I first came to Paris I though we could win. GARNIER What do you mean win? FREDERIC I mean beat the protectionists and win. GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI Like Cobden did in England? FREDERIC Yes. Just like Cobden. But we blew it. GARNIER We didn't blow it! They out manoeuvred us in the Chamber of Deputies. FREDERIC No. We had the best chance in decades and we blew it. GARNIER Maybe the time just wasn't right for that particular strategy to work. FREDERIC What do you mean? GARNIER Well, perhaps if economic conditions had been better, or if we had been able to win the support of a key political figure ... FREDERIC Perhaps ... Perhaps not. We'll see. The conversation continues in a similar vein for a while. The maid brings out more wine and pours it out for the guests. FREDERIC (CONT'D) You know Joseph said something very insightful to me once. GARNIER What did I say? FREDERIC I'll always remember this. You once said to me that they may have defeated "socialism from below" but the real threat will be a new form of socialism, "socialism from above". GARNIER Did I say that? FREDERIC Yes you did! It took me a while to understand what you meant but I did eventually. GARNIER What did I mean? FREDERIC Well, we saw it happening right before our eyes. The socialists in the streets, like our communist friends who shut down our political Club, were defeated by soldiers and artillery in June '48. They got dispersed and might come back eventually. But what if Louis Napoleon and his bureaucrats decide to become socialists ... GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI You mean more socialist than they are already? FREDERIC Yes. Then that is a new and more powerful form of socialism, "socialism from above". And they have the government bureaucracies, and the courts, and the police. That's what worries me the most. We will never get rid of that kind of socialism. Not in my lifetime. Maybe you will have a better chance than I. They all become quiet as they think about what Frederic has just said. Joseph, Gustave and Hortense begin talking amongst themselves. Frederic quietly gets up and moves away to cough in private. He has another very SERIOUS COUGHING FIT. A few minutes later the three look around to see what has happened. Frederic has gone over to the stables, SADDLED HIS HORSE, and is mounting it to go for a ride through the woods. It is very late in the day and the shadows are getting long. GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI What is Frederic doing? MME CHEUVREUX He likes to go for a ride when he wants to clear his head. GUSTAVE DE MOLINARI I'll say thanks for the lovely lunch when he gets back. MME CHEUVREUX He won't be coming back. This is his way of saying good bye. CUT TO: 96 EXT. IN THE STREET OUTSIDE FREDERIC'S APARTMENT IN PARIS -96 DAY October 1850. A carriage has come to take Frederic to the railway station so he can begin his long journey to Rome where he knows he will die of his throat cancer. His single bag is loaded into the carriage. As the carriage pulls away from his building he sees some ANTI-NAPOLEON GRAFFITI and a poster on the wall. It is a caricature of Louis Napoleon as a vulture sitting on a tree branch eating the flesh off the body of Marianne, the symbol of France whom he holds in his talons. The message states "Beware the New Napoleon, the Budget-Eating Vulture of France". Frederic pulls the folded print of Delacroix's painting from his coat pocket. Looks at it and then at the caricature of Napoleon on the wall. He notices THE FACE OF THE DEAD MARIANNE is the same as the one in Delacroix's painting. He folds up the Delacroix print and puts it carefully back in his coat pocket. CUT TO: 97 INT/EXT. THE CARRIAGE OF A TRAIN AS IT LEAVES PARIS - DAY97 Frederic is in the carriage of a train. As he looks out the window he sees THE OCTROI CUSTOMS GATE AND WALL roll by out the window. Then the train passes under THE MILITARY FORTIFICATION WALL and then the train is out into the countryside. One of the last things he sees is one of the HUGE FORTS on the outskirts of Paris with soldiers standing on the outer wall looking out observing everything. He thinks to himself that he is leaving the concentric circles built by the French state to contain the citizens of Paris for the last time, and that it is a kind of liberation, at least for himself. He looks out the window, smiles ruefully, and begins softly singing the Basque folk song "Adios Ene Maitia" (Goodbye, My Love). FREDERIC Goodbye, my love Goodbye forever I have no regrets About you, my love For I left you So free for another CUT TO: 98 INT. HOTEL ROOM IN ROME - DAY 98 It is three months later - Christmas Eve 1850. Frederic has taken a hotel room in Rome overlooking the Tiber river. He is unable to swallow or keep food down. He is CLOSE TO DEATH. A doctor has just been in to see him, as he leaves he meets Hortense waiting outside. MME CHEUVREUX May I see him doctor? DOCTOR IN ROME He does not have much longer to live. Only a few hours. Go in. MME CHEUVREUX Frederic. It is Hortense. FREDERIC Hortense you've come! MME CHEUVREUX Yes. She moves a chair closer to the bed and sits with him. FREDERIC Hortense. What about my papers? MME CHEUVREUX They are safe. I have given them all to Prosper Paillottet as you asked. I will help him edit them. FREDERIC Has Guillaumin agreed to publish volume 2? MME CHEUVREUX Yes. He was reluctant to at first because it wasn't finished. But I said Casimir and I would underwrite the costs. He agreed then. FREDERIC Thank you Hortense. You have been so kind. He reaches for her hand and she lets him hold it. A few moments of silence go by. FREDERIC (CONT'D) We had some happy times. At your salon and at the Lodge. I wish there had been more. MME CHEUVREUX So do I. There are some more moments of silence as Frederic breathes hard and swallows. FREDERIC Promise me one thing Hortense. MME CHEUVREUX Yes? FREDERIC Destroy our letters. MME CHEUVREUX There are some which show another side to you Frederic. People should know about that. Frederic slowly passes away while Hortense sits with him holding his hand. She eventually gets up and looks out the window at the Tiber river. She watches the hustle and bustle of the commercial river traffic below her. On the window ledge she sees a solitary bird pecking for food. A tear runs down her cheek. FADE OUT.
[The Statue for Bastiat in Mugron 1878]
FADE IN. 99 INT. ROOM IN THE FOREIGN OFFICE IN PARIS 99 23 January 1860. Emperor Napoleon III has agreed to sign a free trade treaty with Britain. Signing on behalf of the French government is Frederic's friend and colleague Michel Chevalier, on behalf of Britain is Richard Cobden. They are in a sumptuous room in the Foreign Office signing the treaty. After they have signed the treaty they have a glass of champagne to celebrate and they make a toast to the efforts of Frederic for making the treaty possible. RICHARD COBDEN Let us remember the work of our dear departed friend Frédéric who laid the groundwork for this important treaty between our two great nations. MICHEL CHEVALIER Indeed! To Frédéric! They raise their glasses to toast their old friend. CUT TO: 100 EXT. PUBLIC SQUARE IN MUGRON - DAY 100 It is 23 April 1878 and a small crowd has gathered around a statute in the main square of the town of Mugron for the official unveiling. We can see on one side of the square the Magistrate's Court where Frederic once worked. The town mayor unveils the statue. We hear clapping and Gustave de Molinari steps forward to make a brief speech. We can't hear the words. Hortense is standing next to him. The camera shows the bust of Frederic at the top of a marble plinth. A FULL-SIZED BRONZE FIGURE OF "MARIANNE" can be seen writing on a marble tablet with her finger the titles of Frederic's books, "Economic Sophisms," "Economic Harmonies", and "What is Seen and What is Not Seen." Beneath the tablet is a large bronze plaque with some writing on it. We can read a quotation from one of Frederic's letters to Richard Cobden dated August 1850: FREDERIC (V.O.) "War is a monster, a vulture that is almost as voracious when digesting as it is when eating, for I truly believe that expenditure on arms causes almost as much harm to nations as war itself. As long as disarmament prevents governments from restructuring their finances, lowering their taxes, and satisfying the just hopes of the workers, nations will continue to be in convulsion . . . and God alone knows what the consequences will be." CUT TO: 101 EXT. PUBLIC SQUARE IN MUGRON - DAY 101 Time lapse photography shows the weathering of Frederic's monument over the next 6 decades. During this period Frederic's work is completely forgotten in France and elsewhere. In is now 1942 and GERMAN SOLDIERS are stripping all the bronze work from buildings, churches, and public statues all across France. They are breaking off the bust of Frederic at the top of the statue and some are trying with great difficulty to pull the figure of Marianne and the plaque off the plinth. They eventually succeed and throw Frederic's bust, the figure, and the plaque into the back of an army truck which drives off. CUT TO: 102 INT. A FOUNDRY IN FRANCE - DAY 102 Sometime later we see pieces of bronze being lowered into a crucible by a winch to be melted down and made into munitions. The plaque with the quotation is lowered first, and we see it slowly dissolve into the molten metal. Then the figure of Marianne and the bust of Frederic's head are lowered into the vat together and we watch as they slowly melt and merge into THE POOL OF RED HOT MOLTEN METAL. FADE TO RED/ORANGE. 103 EXT. THE PRINTING WORKS OF THE SANTA ANA DAILY REGISTER - DAY103 We cut to 1944 when the printing presses of the American newspaper publisher R.C. Hoiles in Santa Ana, California (the Santa Ana Register) are printing large numbers of a NEW ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDITION of Frederic's Economic Sophisms and Economic Harmonies. They are being loaded onto trucks to be distributed to bookshops all over the country. Wall posters announce the event with a picture of Bastiat and the cover of the books which are BRIGHT RED in colour - the same colour red as the molten metal in the German foundry. They are being sold for $2.50 per volume. FADE TO BLACK.