EUROPE, EMPIRE & WAR: PART 1.
"THE LONG 19TH CENTURY, 1789-1914"

Course and Seminar Guide

[Created: December 28, 2021]
[Updated: 28 December, 2021 ]

 

The "liberal" Course textbook: Theodore Hamerow, The Birth of a New Europe (1983) The "Marxist" course textbook: Eric Hobsbawm, The Age of Revolution, 1789-1848 (1962)

 

This is part of a collection of material on the history of the classical liberal tradition.

Note: There are also links to the lecture notes I used when giving this course.

Table of Contents

Some General Information about the Course

Lecture and Film program for "The Long 19th Century" (S1 1999)

Introductory Seminars

Seminar Topics

Concluding Seminqar

 


 

Some General Information about the Course

I. OVERVIEW

The subject will deal with the remarkable transformation of European society which took place between the outbreak of the French Revolution in 1789 to the beginning of the First World War in 1914. The guiding principle of the subject is the idea of "opposing voices and contested meanings" - in other words, that the changes taking place in 19th century European society were supported by some groups and indivudals and opposed by others (the "opposing voices"), and that historians have been deeply divided in their interpretation of the meaning and significance of these changes (the "contested meanings").

The approach I will take in the lectures is a thematic one. I will discuss a number of themes dealing with the Economy and Society; Class, Power & Revolution; Political Thought; State, Empire and War; Liberty; and Ideas and Culture, in a chronological, comparative and analytical fashion. In the tutorials we will discuss some of the "opposing voices and contested meanings" including:

  • the impact of the "twin revolutions" (the French and Industrial Revolutions) on ordinary people
  • the impact of the "political revolution"
    • the recurring problem of revolution and the struggle within the new leadership to control its direction
    • the transformation of traditional monarchical regimes into liberal democracies/republics
    • the use of public ritual and political imagery by regimes (whether republican or monarchical) to gain public support
  • the impact of the "economic revolution"
    • the impact of the industrial revolution and the globalisation of the economy on European society
    • its impact on the conduct of war and the possibilities for imperial expansion
  • the idea of "emancipation"
    • competing visions of emancipation and reform - Mill's liberalism vs Marx's socialism
    • the emancipation of serfs (within Europe) and slaves (in Europe's colonies)
    • the emancipation of women
  • the problem of "war and empire"
    • the impact of war and empire on state-building and the spread of Europeans across the globe
    • the moral, legal and military problems faced by the British (and their Australian supporters) in maintaining their Empire
    • the development of ideals of personal honour, athleticism and manliness in the elite, middle and working classes which were used to justify war and empire
  • the study of history
    • the development of essential skills in the areas of research, information technology, critical thinking, essay writing, oral presentation
    • using primary and secondary sources - the problem of "opposing voices and contested meanings"
    • evaluating the historical accuracy of feature films (e.g. Danton and Breaker Morant)
  • the importance of history as a discipline and the significance of the 19thC in general

In addition, there will be a number of Workshop Lectures, Workshop Seminars and Film and History Seminars in which we will develop the skills required for the study of history in particular and of the humanities in general. These include the use of film by historians, the importance of history as a discipline, and essay and research skills. A number of films will be shown with the aim of exploring the accuracy of the history depicted on the screen.

II. AIMS

The aim of this history subject (and of an arts education in general - in my opinion) is to achieve a number of vocational and general educational ends. These include

  • the development of essential basic skills which you can use in any career you might wish to pursue: research, information technology, critical thinking, essay writing, oral presentation
  • an awareness of the main events and the forces behind the course of European history of the last 250 years, a knowledge of which is essential in order to understand the political, social and economic changes which continue to shape Europe, North America, Asia and Australia
  • an understanding of the emergence and evolution of some our most important ideas and values, and legal, economic and political institutions from their European origins
  • an understanding of the historical method of analysis including
    • an appreciation that historical knowledge is based upon interpretation of primary sources
    • an ability to analyse a primary source
    • an ability to deal with different historical interpretations of the same event
    • an ability to make an historical argument based upon information drawn from primary and secondary sources and specific historical examples
    • the capacity to use the BSL, the Internet and computers for research and writing

We plan to pursue these ends in a variety of ways. Some are achieved explicitly, e.g. the Essays and Exercises are designed to develop writing and analytical skills, and some are achieved implicitly, e.g. in general discussion and in the basic assumptions made about the subject.

III. SUBJECT TEXTBOOKS

In keeping with the thematic and comparative approach of the subject, I have chosen two authors - Theodore Hamerow (a conservative liberal) and Eric Hobsbawm (a Marxist) - with very different interpretations of 19thC European history as subject textbooks. Purchase of either the Hamerow book or one of the Hobsbawm books is strongly recommended. Having one of each would be better.

  • Theodore S. Hamerow, The Birth of a New Europe: State and Society in the Nineteenth Century (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1983).
  • Eric Hobsbawm
    • The Age of Revolution, 1789-1848 (1962) (New York: Mentor)
    • The Age of Capital, 1848-1875 (1975) (London: Abacus, 1997).
    • The Age of Empire, 1875-1914 (1987) (London: Abacus, 1997).

Note: The 4th volume in Hobsbawm's history of Europe is:

  • Eric Hobsbawm, The Age of Extremes. A History of the World, 1914-1991 (1994) (New York: Vintage, 1996).

For the Workshop Tutorial on "Writing Better Essays" the following work is recommended:

  • Richard Marius, A Short Guide to Writing about History (2nd edition. HarperCollins, 1995).

Those who want a chronological treatment of the subject could try the American textbook by Chambers, the video series by Eugen Weber, and the collection of primary source material by Sherman:

  • The Western Experience, Mortimer Chambers et al., vol. 2 (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1995). 6th edition.
  • Eugen Weber, The Western Tradition (Boston, Mass.: WGBH and Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1989)
  • Western Civilization: Sources, Images, and Interpretations. Vol. 2: Since 1660, ed. Denis Sherman (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1995). 4th edition.

The textbook for Part 2 of the subject "Europe in a Changing World, 1890-1956" is

  • Joel Colton and R.R. Palmer, A History of the Modern World: Europe Since 1815. Vol. IV (McGraw-Hill, 1995).

Other Recommended Works

The extraordinary, long and compendious work by Norman Davies, Europe: A History (London: Pimlico, 1997).

Macmillan is publishing a series of works under the general title of "Themes in Comparative History" ed. Clive Emsley. Titles which are relevant to themes covered in this subject include:

  • Pamela Pilbeam, The Middle Classes in Europe, 1789-1914: France, Germany, Italy and Russia (London: Macmillan, 1990).
  • Jane Rendall, The Origins of Modern Feminism: Women in Britain, France, and the United States, 1780-1860 (London: Macmillan, 1985)
  • Ian Inkster, Science and Technology in History c. 1750-1914 (London: Macmillan, 1991)
  • Dominic Lieven, The Aristocracy in Europe, 1815-1914 (New York : Columbia University Press, 1993).

IV. MAKING SENSE OF THE PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES

One of the most difficult problems confronting students of history is how to make sense of what they read, especially if the historians they read disagree among themselves. To help you come to terms with this problem the lectures and Seminars will give you some practice in handling what I call "opposing voices and contested meanings". Wherever possible, we will examine different points of view - some expressed by contemporaries or eyewitnesses to the events in question (the "opposing voices"), others expressed by historians writing much later in an attempt to make sense of what happened in the past (the "contested meanings"). The Textbooks have been selected to bring out as clearly as possible this "contest" over the meaning of the past. Hamerow is a liberal conservative and Hobsbawm is a Marxist and their different interpretations of 19th century European history should provide a basis for our own discussion.

In all your written work you will be expected to use and discuss the textbooks (Hamerow and Hobsbawm), any relevant primary sources (extracts from printed collections, the film/s, contemporary art or photographs), and other secondary sources (monographs (whole books devoted to the subject), essays in books, and journal articles) - many of which are listed in the Reading Guide.

1. The Problem of "Opposing Voices" (Primary Sources)

In many Seminars we will examine closely one or more primary sources or documents from the Reader of Primary Sources. In some cases they will have starkly different stories to tell - some will strenuously oppose the event or change taking place, others will support it just as strenuously, yet others will be confused. What sense can historians make of these "opposing voices" from the past? Before analysing the document itself you will have to do some background reading of the Textbooks or the secondary sources listed in the Reading Guide. Having done this background reading you then need to analyse the document. In many cases you will have to "read between the lines" as much important information will not be stated explicitly but can be extracted only by examining the document's historical context and the biases, preconceptions, and expectations of the author. Some of the Primary Sources will be printed documents (published books or pamphlets, parliamentary reports or debates). Other Primary Sources will be images (such as works of art, etchings, photographs).

2. The Problem of "Contested Meanings" (Historiography)

Not only do the primary sources give different perspectives on what happened in the past but also historians differ greatly in what they say happened and what these events mean to the modern reader. This is the general problem of the "contested meaning" of history. In all the Seminars we will discuss how the reader can make sense of the vastly different intrerpretations of history offered by conservatives, classical liberals, Marxists, nationalists, feminists, and others. The two textbooks for the subject - one written by a Marxist (Hobsbawm) and the other written by a liberal (Hamerow) - should provide the starting point for our discussion. Other secondary sources listed in the Reading Guide should show this problem even more clearly, especially in formal historiographical disputes among historians over the interpretation and meaning of a number of historical events or problems. Students will be asked to "take sides" in the dispute by arguing for one of the interpretations of the events in question.

3. Film as an Historical Source

We will explore how film can be used by historians both as an historical source which provides information about the past and as a way of interpreting the past. You are required to attend one of the Film Sessions and to write one of your Exercises on that film. The task is to examine one or more primary sources in order to assess the historical accuracy of the film. To do this you will have to do some reading on the persons or events depicted on the screen in order to get some historical background. You then need to see the film (more than once if at all possible) and historically and critically evaluate what you have seen. You should also find out as much as you can about the filmmakers (director, screenwriter, historical advisor, etc), their reasons for making the film as they did, the historical context in which the film was made, and the reception of the film when it was released.

4. Using Primary Sources

When dealing with primary sources (documents) in many cases you will have to "read between the lines" as much important information will not be stated explicitly but can be extracted only by examining the document's historical context and the biases, preconceptions, and expectations of the author. Some things to consider when analysing the document are the following (this list is only a guideline):

  • where did the source come from (a dusty archive or library, or an edited and printed collection of documents)?
  • who edited the collection?
  • who wrote (or painted) it?
  • when was the document written (painted, recorded)?
  • what is the author/speaker's class background, their nationality, their political perspective, their gender, their religion?
  • why was it written (painted)?
  • who is the author's audience?
  • did it achieve the purpose of the author?
  • whose "voice" are we hearing? is the author speaking for him/herself or on behalf of others?
  • what was the historical context in which the document was created?
  • how is it written (constructed, composed)? what syle does the author use? what rhetorical devices are used? are they effective?
  • what does the document say?
  • what doesn't it say (or leave out)? and why does the author leave this out?
  • is the document accurate in what it does say? does the author "bend" the truth? if so, why?
  • how can or should an historian use this document in order to understand the past?

5. Using Secondary Sources

  • what primary sources did the historian (filmmaker) use?
    • have you checked any of these sources to see if they are correct?
  • what primary sources did the historian NOT use?
  • did the historian favour sources from a particular class, gender, country, period over other possible sources?
    • or a particular kind of source (such as official government records, memoirs of the educated elite, works of art, political iconography)?
  • what secondary sources (i.e. the works of other historians) did the historian use?
  • to what extent is the work based upon "original research" or the work of other historians?
  • what is the perspective (bias) of the historian?
  • does the historian belong to a particular "school of thought"?
    • if so, does this matter?

6. Matters Relevant to all Types of Sources (Primary, Secondary - Printed, Film, Art)

  • from all sources the reader can get both information (what happened) and interpretation (why it happened, what it means)
  • ask yourself, what information can the reader/viewer get from the source?
  • what information is withheld (absent, omitted)? (hint: you might need to read other sources to answer this question)
  • what interpretation of events does the author of the document (filmmaker) provide?
    • is this interpretation deliberate (intentional) or implicit (unintentional)?
  • can you confirm/corroborate or contradict by using other sources the information imparted by the document?
  • how can knowledge of the historical context in which the document was produced help to extract information contained in the document and/or understand the interpretation/perspective of the author?

7. Reaching a Conclusion

The final stage of the Essay/Exercise is to state your conclusion or answer to the problem under discussion. This should be based upon the information and interpretations you have gleaned from reading both primary and secondary sources. The questions you should keep in mind include the following:

  • what information have I got from what I have read?
  • what specific examples have I come across?
  • what arguments (conclusions, interpretations, explanations) have I got from what I have read?
  • what is the perspective (bias) of the sources I have read?
  • how reliable are the sources I have read?
  • what particular perspective have they given me?
  • what have they left out?
  • are the examples, arguments, conclusions given in the sources convincing to me?
  • what conclusion might historians with different perspectives reach on this question?
    • e.g. a liberal, conservative, Marxist, feminist, nationalist, etc?
  • what is my own pespective on this question/issue?
  • whose evidence, examples, arguments, conclusions do I ultimately find most convincing?
    • why?

 


 

Lecture and Film program for "The Long 19th Century" (S1 1999):

  1. Introduction I1 - Historical Geography of Europe - Legacy of the Past
  2. Introduction II - The "Long 19thC"
    1. Textbook Exercise: Hamerow & Hobsbawm interpret the 19thC
  3. Political Authority & Class Rule I - Power & Privilege in Traditional States
  4. Political Authority & Class Rule II - Images of Monarchs, Emperors, & Republics
  5. The Struggle for Liberty I - Struggle for Liberty in 19thC - Chronology of the French Revolution
  6. The Struggle for Liberty II - Slavery and its Abolition
  7. The Struggle for Liberty III - Emancipation of the Serfs
  8. The Struggle for Liberty IV - Emancipation of Women
  9. Ideologies of Emancipation I - Liberalism (Mill) - 19thC Liberalism & Socialism compared
  10. Ideologies of Emancipation II - Socialism (Marx)
  11. State, Empire & War I - Empires & Colonies
  12. State, Empire & War II - War & State-Making
  13. Economic Revolution I - The Industrial Revolution & its Impact on Ordinary People
  14. Economic Revolution II - Impact of the Industrial Revolution on War & Imperialism
  15. Ideas & Culture I - "High" Culture
  16. Ideas & Culture II - Popular Culture
  17. Ideas & Culture III - Science & Technology
  18. Conclusion I - Fin de siècle- the End of an Era?
  19. Conclusion II - The Importance of (19thC) History

Films:

  1. Documentary: Ken Burns "The Statue of Liberty"
  2. The French Revolution: Andrzej Wajda, Danton (1982) 2hrs 16
  3. Napoleon: Abel Gance, Napoleon (1927) Part 1 2hrs
  4. Napoleon: Abel Gance, Napoleon (1927) Part 2 1hr 51
  5. 19thC Slavery - Steven Spielberg, Amistad (1997) 2hrs 35
  6. The Industrial Revolution - René Clément, Gervaise (1956) 1hr 50
  7. War & Empire (Crimean War) - Tony Richardson, Charge of the Light Brigade (1968) 2hrs 5
  8. War & Empire (Boer War): Bruce Beresford, Breaker Morant (1980) 1hr 47

 


 

TOPICS FOR DISCUSSION IN THE WEEKLY SEMINARS

I. An Introduction to the Study of the "Long 19th Century"

 
William Blake, "Europe Supported by Africa and America" (1793)   Idealized depictions of "Europe", "Africa", "Asia" and "America" (1776)

[See the Lecture Notes for this topic.]

SEMINAR DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

1. Maps in the Reader of Primary Sources

Familiarize yourselves with the maps in the Reader of Primary Sources

  • Geographical maps
    • the physiography of Europe (Mortimer Chambers)
    • Physical regions (Davies)
  • Political maps
    • the European States in 1789 (Doyle)
    • the European States c. 1800 (Doyle)
    • Europe in 1878 (Joll)
    • the Colonial Empires, 1914 (Fieldhouse)
    • Europe on the Eve of WW1 (Gilbert)
  • Other maps
    • the languages of Europe
    • East-West fault lines (Davies)

2. General Discussion Questions

Some basic questions to consider (for this Seminar, the Textbook Seminar and for the subject as a whole) include the following:

  • why should one study the 19th century? why are you studying this subject?
  • who are the people/s known as "Europeans"?
  • where and what is "Europe"?
    • what have been, were in the 19thC and now are, the geographical boundaries of "Europe"?
    • what ethnic, religious, linguistic, dynastic, political, economic, diplomatic, intellectual, cultural, or other forces have contributed most to shaping a common "European" experience or identity?
  • when, if at all, did "Europeans" become self-conscious of this common experience or identity?
  • familiarize yourselves with the maps in the Reader of Primary Sources
    • Geographical maps
      • the physiography of Europe (Mortimer Chambers)
      • Physical regions (Davies)
    • Political maps
      • the European States in 1789 (Doyle)
      • the European States c. 1800 (Doyle)
      • Europe in 1878 (Joll)
      • the Colonial Empires, 1914 (Fieldhouse)
      • Europe on the Eve of WW1 (Gilbert)
    • Other maps
      • the languages of Europe
      • East-West fault lines (Davies)
  • discuss the issue of the "periodization" of history
    • how have historians traditionally divided up the past into "periods" or "ages" or "eras"?
    • what defines a particular "period" from what has gone before and what has come after? (e.g. ancient, medieval, early modern, modern, post-modern)?
    • what, if anything, distinguishes "the 19th century" from what went before and what came after?
    • when did the "19thC" begin and end?
    • why do some historians (like me!) refer to the "long 19thC"? or even the "longer 19thC" (i.e. 1789-1918)
  • draw up and discuss a chronology of the major events of the 19th century (e.g. wars, revolutions, the unifications of states, etc)
  • what are the strengths and weaknesses of studying (19thC European) history from the following perspectives:
    • chronogically (e.g. from 1789 to 1914)
    • from a "national" perspective (e.g. separate histories of France, Britain, Germany)
    • comparatively (comparing and contrasting French, British, German history over the same period)
    • thematically (identifying certain "themes" and discussing them in a comparative and chronological fashion - e.g. women's history, economic history)
    • ideologically (e.g. offering a Marxist, liberal or feminist interpretation of history)

C. ADDITIONAL RECOMMENDED READING

Please note: The full bibliography is only available online.

1. The Historical Geography of 19th Century Europe

The Penguin Atlas of World History, 2 vols., ed. Herman Kinder and Werner Hilgermann (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1978). Volume 2 deals with the period From the French Revolution to the Present.

Norman J.G. Pounds, An Historical Geography of Europe, 1500-1840 (Cambridge University Press, 1979).

2. Chronology of Major Events and Dictionaries

The Penguin Dictionary of Modern History, 1789-1945, ed. Alan Palmer, 2nd edition (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1983).

The Penguin Dictionary of Twentieth-Century History, 1900-1989, ed. Alan Palmer, 2nd edition (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1990).

3. Other Works on "19th Century" European History

History on the Internet

The Barr Smith Library's "Library Information Services History Home Page": http://library.adelaide.edu.au/guide/hum/history

Dennis A. Trinkle et al., The History Highway: A Guide to Internet Resources (Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe, 1997). The History Highway Website is: http://www.uc.edu/www/history/highway.html

Historiography

An older collection of historical opinion about the 19thC: A Century for Debate, 1789-1914: Problems in the Interpretation of European History, ed. Peter N. Stearns (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1975). Chap. XV "The Nature of the Nineteenth Century" - essays by Ford, Murray, Keynes, Croce, Hayes, Mosse, pp. 472-511.

General Works

Grant and Temperley's Europe in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries (7th ed.) volume 1 by Agatha Ramm, Europe in the Nineteenth Century, 1789-1905 (London: Longman, 1984).

Robert Gildea, Barricades and Borders: Europe 1800-1914 (Oxford University Press, 1987).

Chris Cook and John Paxton, European Political Facts, 1789-1848 (Macmillan, 1981).

Chris Cook and John Paxton, European Political Facts, 1848-1918 (New York: Facts on File, 1978).

France

Roger Magraw, France 1815-1914: The Bourgeois Century (Fontana, 1983).

The German States/Germany/Austria

James Sheehan, German History 1770-1866 (Oxford University Press, 1990).

Gordon Craig, Germany 1866-1945 (Oxford University Press, 1980).

B. Jelavich, Modern Austria: Empire and Republic, 1815-1986 (Cambridge University Press, 1987).

Britain

Norman McCord, British History, 1815-1906 (Oxford University Press, 1991).

4. The Idea of "Europe"

The History of the Idea of Europe, ed. Kevin Wilson and Jan van der Dussen (London: Routledge, 1995).

Culture and Identity in Europe: Perceptions of Divergence and Unity in Past and Present, ed. Michael Wintle (Aldershot: Avebury, 1996).

Denys Hay, Europe: The Emergence of an Idea (New York: Harper Torchbooks, 1966).

Die Idee Europa, 1300-1946: Quellen zur Geschichte der politischen Einigung, ed. Rolf Hellmut Foester (dtv documente1963).

5. The Uniqueness of Europe

E.L. Jones, The European Miracle: Environments, Economies and Geopolitics in the History of Europe and Asia (Cambridge University Press, 1981).

Nathan Rosenberg and L.E. Birdzell, Jr., How the West Grew Rich: The Economic Transformation of the Industrial World (New York: Basic Books, 1986).

J.M. Roberts, The Triumph of the West (London: BBC, 1985).

6. The Making of Europe

The Oxford, Blackwell series "The Making of Europe" ed. Jacques Le Goff:

  • Charles Tilly, European Revolutions, 1492-1992 (1993)
  • Leonardo Benevolo, The European City (1993)
  • Michel Mollat du Jourdin, Europe and the Sea (1993)
  • Josep Fonatan i Lazaro, The Distorted Past: A Reinterpretation of Europe (1995)
  • Massimo Montanari, The Culture of Food (1994)
  • Werner Rosener, The Peasantry of Europe: from the 6th Century to the Present (1994)
  • Umberto Eco, The Search for the Perfect Language (1994)

7. Art and History

Francis Haskell, History and its Images: Art and the Interpretation. of the Past (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993).

Susan Woodford, Looking at Pictures (Cambridge University Press, 1995).

Art and History: Images and their Meaning, ed. Robert I. Rotberg and Theodore K. Rabb (Cambridge University Press, 1988).

Albert Boime, A Social History of Modern Art (University of Chicago Press)

  • Volume 1 - Art in an Age of Revolution, 1750-1800 (1987)
  • Volume 2 - Art in an Age of Bonapartism, 1800-1815 (1990)

 


 

II. Introduction to the Textbooks: Comparing and Contrasting Hamerow & Hobsbawm's Approaches to the Study of the 19th Century

Eric Hobsbawm
(above:from The Radical History Review)
(below: from the dust jacket of Uncommon People)

Theodore Hamerow
(above: from The Chronicle of Higher Education 1990)

Eric Hobsbawm
(below: from the dust jacket of the 1962 edition of Age of Revolution)

 


A. SEMINAR READING AND DISCUSSION

1. Textbook Reading

Selectively read one of the following subject textbooks by Hamerow (from a liberal perspective) or Hobsbawm (from a Marxist perspective):

  • Theodore S. Hamerow, The Birth of a New Europe: State and Society in the Nineteenth Century (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1983).
  • Eric Hobsbawm's trilogy of books on the 19thC:
    • The Age of Revolution, 1789-1848 (1962) (New York: Mentor)
    • The Age of Capital, 1848-1875 (1975) (London: Abacus, 1997).
    • The Age of Empire, 1875-1914 (1987) (London: Abacus, 1997).

Note: It is not necessary to read all three volumes of Hobsbawm and Hamerow's textbook for this seminar! Begin by reading the introduction and conclusion to the volume (or volumes) you have chosen, then use the table of contents and index to find other bits to skim.

2. Questions to Keep in Mind when Reading

We should begin by asking ourselves "who are the people who have written our textbooks?" We need to know something about:

  • biographical details of the authors (where they born born, where and what they studied, where they have taught and researched)
  • their area of academic research and their major publications (monographs/books, journal articles, textbooks and more general works)
  • the approach, method, perspective taken in their work - what are the strengths and weaknesses of their respective approaches to the topic?
  • the reception of their work in scholarly journals and popular but serious magazines (reviews of their books by other historians and scholars)

A useful exercise is to compare (to find similarities) and contrast (to find differences) the interpretation of 19th century European history of Theodore Hamerow and Eric Hobsbawm, in particular their interpretation of the impact and importance of the "twin revolutions" of the 19thC (i.e. the French and Industrial Rdevolutions). Some of the points you might like to consider were raised in last week's tutorial concerning periodization, key events and processes, method, and so on:

Concerning Theodore Hamerow, The Birth of a New Europe (1983)

  • what is Hamerow's political perspective?
  • what beginning and end points to the 19thC does Hamerow use?
  • why does he think this period is important?
  • what is his definition of "Europe"? what countries does he concentrate on?
  • what does he mean by "New Europe"?
  • what themes has he chosen to discuss? why did he choose these themes and not others? what themes has he ignored?
  • what type of history has Hamerow written (e.g. political, economic, military, social, femininst, intellectual history?)
  • what is his attitude to the "twin revolutions" (the French Revolution, the Industrial Revolution)

Concerning Eric Hobsbawm, The Age of Revolution, 1789-1848 (1962);The Age of Capital, 1848-1875 (1975);The Age of Empire, 1875-1914 (1987)

  • what is Hobsbawm's political perspective?
  • what does Hobsbawm mean by "age"?
  • why does he divide the "19thC" into three "ages"?
  • what events does Hobsbawm use to begin and end his "ages"?
  • why does he think these "ages" and this period are important?
  • what is his definition of "Europe"? what countries does he concentrate on?
  • has his approach changed between the appearance of the first volume in 1962 and the third in 1987?
  • what themes has he chosen to discuss? why did he choose these themes and not others? what themes has he ignored?
  • what type of history has Hobsbawm written (e.g. political, economic, military, social, femininst, intellectual history?)
  • what is his attitude to the "twin revolutions" (the French Revolution, the Industrial Revolution)

How do other historians (like Ramm and Gildea) approach the subject?

B. TOPIC FOR THE "TEXTBOOK EXERCISE"

Everyone should write and bring to the Seminar a 500 word paper on one of the following topics about either Hamerow or Hobsbawm:

  1. Biography - Who is Hamerow/Hobsbawm? To answer this question you should look for biographical information in their books (often supplied by the publishers), in biographical dictionaries, "Who's who", obituaries (if they have died!). Things we want to know include: Who are thery, what do they look like, where were they born, where did they study history, where have they taught, what major events occurred during their lifetime and what impact (if any) has this had on their interpretation of history?
  2. Bibliography - What have they written? To answer this question you might search the Barr Smith Library computer catalogue (under "Author" - "Sort List" by "date" to get a chronological listing), an online academic database like "Expanded Academic Index", or biographical or bibliographical essays on the author.
  3. Reception - What do other historians think about their work? To answer this question you could look at reviews of their books in academic journals and serious magazines. Refer to at least 2 reviews of their work in your answer.
  4. Historiography - What is their approach to the study of the 19th century? To answer this question you could select a theme or topic covered by one of the authors (say, their interpretation of one of the "twin revolutions" of the 19thC such as the French Revolution or the Industrial Revolution) and describe how they think it changed European society and why they think it is significant.

C. ADDITIONAL RECOMMENDED READING

Please note: The full bibliography is only available online.

1. Biographical and Bibliographical Information

General Works

The Blackwell Dictionary of Historians, ed. J. Canon et al. (Oxford: Blackwell, 1988).

Great Historians of the Modern Age: An International Dictionary, ed. L. Boia (1991).

Theodore Hamerow

Jean-Pierre v. m. Herubel, "CLIO'S DARK MUSINGS?: A REVIEW ESSAY", Libraries & Culture, 1988 23(4): 493-498.

Eric Hobsbawm

Eugene D. Genovese, "The Politics of Class Struggle in the History of Society: An Appraisal of the Work of Eric Hobsbawm," in The Power of the Past: Essays for Eric Hobsbawm, ed. Pat Thane et al. (Cambridge University Press, 1984), pp. 13-36

Keith McClelland, "Bibliography of the Writings of Eric Hobsbawm," (up to 1982) in Culture, Ideology and Politics: Essays for Eric Hobsbawm, ed. Raphael Samuel and Gareth Stedman Jones (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1982), pp. 332-63.

2. Book Reviews in Scholarly Journals and Serious Magazines

Combined Retrospective Index to Book Reviews in Scholarly Journals (1886-1974). 15 vols. 1979-1982.

Book Review Digest (1905-)

Book Review Index (1905-).

Humanites Index (1907-). CD-ROM from 1984-

Social Sciences Index (1907-). CD-ROM from 1983-

Arts and Humanities Citation Index (1976-). CD-ROM from 1992-

 


 

Seminar Topic I. Danton, Robespierre and the French Revolution

 

 

Georges Jacques Danton  Maximilien Robespierre 

A. SEMINAR READING AND DISCUSSION

1. Textbook Reading

Theodore S. Hamerow, The Birth of a New Europe (1983). A very striking omission in Hamerow's book is a separate chapter dealing with the problem of revolution in general in the 19thC and the imapct of the French Revolution in particular. Why is this?

Eric Hobsbawm - as one might expect from a Marxist, revolution plays a very important part in Hobsbawm's accounts, both as the legacy of the French Revolution and as a foretaste of what is to come in the socialist revolutions of the 20th century.

  • The Age of Revolution, 1789-1848 (1962): Chap. 3 "The French Revolution"; Chap. 6 "Revolutions"; Chap. 16 "Conclusion: Towards 1848"
  • The Age of Capital, 1848-1875 (1975): Chap 1 "'The Springtime of the Peoples'";
  • The Age of Empire, 1875-1914 (1987): Chap 1. "The Centarian Revolution"; Chap. 12 "Towards Revolution"

2. Background Reading - Secondary Sources ("Contested Meaning")

Hobsbawm's defense of Marxist interpretations of the French Revolution on the occasion of the bicentennial: E.J. Hobsbawm, Echoes of the Marseillaise: Two Centuries Look Back on the French Revolution (London: Verso, 1990).

The Permanent Revolution: The French Revolution and its Legacy, 1789-1989, ed. Geoffrey Best (University of Chicago Press, 1989).

William Doyle, The Oxford History of the French Revolution (Oxford University Press, 1990). Ch. 11 "Government by Terror, 1793-1795," pp. 247-71; Ch. 12 "Thermidor, 1794-1795," pp. 272-96.

A Critical Dictionary of the French Revolution, ed. François Furet and Mona Ozouf, trans. Arthur Goldhammer (Harvard University Press, 1989).

  • François Furet, "The Terror,", pp. 137-150
  • Denis Richet, "Committee of Public Safety," pp. 474-78

3. Primary Sources ("Opposing Voices") in the Reader of Primary Sources or as an Online E-Text

Sources Relevant to the Film:

  • Georges Jacques Danton, "On Crisis Measures" (March 10. 1793) in The French Revolution, ed. Paul H. Beik (New York: Macmillan, 1970), pp. 250-55
  • Maximilien Robespierre
    • "Last Speech to the Convention (July 26, 1794), in Robespierre, ed. George Rudé (New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1967), pp. 74-78.
    • Robespierre's Proposed Declaration of Rights, 24 April, 1793, in A Documentary Survey of the French Revolution, ed. John Hall Stewart (New York: Macmillan, 1964), pp. 430-34
    • "On the Principles of Political Morality" (1794) - E-Text
    • "The Cult of the Supreme Being" () - E-Text
    • "Justification of the Terror" () - E-Text
  • "Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen, 27 August 1789" in A Documentary Survey of the French Revolution, ed. John Hall Stewart (New York: Macmillan, 1964), pp. 113-5. E-Text version.
  • Documentary Appendices from Daniel Arasse, The Guillotine and the Terror, trans. Christopher Miller (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1991), pp. 184-92.

Other Sources:

  • Rouget de Lisle's "La Marseillaise" (1792) - E-text.

4. Film

See the handout on Andrzej Wajda, Danton (1982) 2hrs 16 (LD)

 

5. Questions to Keep in Mind when Reading and Watching

  • Why did the French Revolution turn violent? Was this inevitable?
  • How do you account for the contradictory nature of the two major icons of the French Revolution - the Guillotine and the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen?
  • What has been the long-term impact of the French Revolution? on Europe? on us (in Australia)? on the rest of the world?
  • "Danton - opponent of bloody revolution and 'friend of the people'? Robespierre - cold-blooded architect of revolutionary dictatorship?" Is this an accurate representation of these two revolutionary figures?
  • Assess the historical accuracy of the depiction of Danton and Robespierre in Andrzej Wajda's film Danton (1982).
  • What made Wajda's film so controversial in France when it was released?
  • How was the bicentennial of the outbreak of the French Revolution "celebrated"?

B. TOPICS FOR WRITTEN WORK

You are required to hand in a Primary Source Exercise, a Film Analysis Exercise and a Major Essay. The major Essay is due at the end of the semester. The first exercise (either on a Primary Source or on a Film) is due in the mid-semester break. The second exercise (either on a Primary Source or on a Film) is due at the relevant Seminar in the second half of the semester. You must choose a different Seminar Topic for each of these pieces of written work, in other words there can be no doubling up of topics.

1. Primary Source Exercise

"Select one of the Primary Sources in the Reader of Primary Sources and answer the following questions: what kind of primary source is it, who wrote (or painted) it, when was it written, why was it written, what does the source tell us about the past?"

In your answer you should

  • refer to the questions concerning primary sources posed in the Guide to the Primary Source Exercises - Using Primary Sources (listed below)
  • use at least 4 secondary sources listed in the Seminar Reading Guide (in addition to the textbooks by Hamerow or Hobsbawm) for information about the author and the historical context of the primary source

2. Film Analysis Exercise

"Select one of the feature films shown in this Subject and, by using at least one of the primary sources in the Reader of Primary Sources, assess the historical accuracy of the film and account for any discrepancies you find."

In your answer you should

  • refer to the issues raised in An Introduction to the Study of Film and History (listed below)
  • use at least 1 primary source from the Reader of Primary Sources and 4 secondary sources listed in the Seminar Reading Guide (in addition to the textbooks by Hamerow or Hobsbawm) for information about the events and individuals depicted in the film, the filmmaker, and the historical context in which the film was made

3. Major Essay

  • "Danton - opponent of bloody revolution and 'friend of the people'? Robespierre - cold-blooded architect of revolutionary dictatorship?" Use at least two primary sources from the Reader of Primary Sources to assess the accuracy of this assertion about these two revolutionary figures.

C. ADDITIONAL RECOMMENDED READING

Please note: The full bibliography is only available online.

1. On Georges Jacques Danton (1759-1794)

Norman Hampson, Danton (New York: Holmes and Meier, 1978).

Mona Ozouf, "Danton," in A Critical Dictionary of the French Revolution, ed. François Furet and Mona Ozouf, trans. Arthur Goldhammer (Harvard University Press, 1989), pp. 213-222.

2. On Robespierre

Robespierre, ed. George Rudé (New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1967).

Patrice Gueniffey, "Robespierre" in A Critical Dictionary of the French Revolution, ed. François Furet and Mona Ozouf, trans. Arthur Goldhammer (Harvard University Press, 1989), pp. 298-312.

George Rudé, Robespierre: Portrait of a Revolutionary Democrat (London: Collins, 1975).

3. The Director - Andrzej Wajda

"Andrzej Wajda" in World Film Directors. Volume 2, ed. John Wakeman (New York: H.W. Wilson, 1987), pp. 1148-55.

Mrs. B. Urgolsikova, "Andrzej Wajda" in The International Dictionary of Films and Filmmakers: Volume 2 Directors/Filmmakers, ed. Christopher Lyon (London: Macmillan, 1987), pp. 567-570.

4. Film Reviews

Robert Darnton, "Danton," in Past Imperfect: History according to the Movies, ed. Mark C. Carnes (New York: Henry Holt, 1995), pp. 104-109.

Robert Darnton, "Film: Danton and Double Entendre," The Kiss of Lamourette: Reflections on Cultural History (New York: W.W. Norton, 1990), pp. 37-52.

5. General

An influential non-Marxist (or anti-Marxist) critique is provided by François Furet, Interpreting the French Revolution, trans. Elborg Forster (Cambridge University Press, 1981).

Daniel Arasse, The Guillotine and the Terror, trans. Christopher Miller (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1991).

A Century for Debate, 1789-1914: Problems in the Interpretation of European History, ed. Peter N. Stearns (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1975). Chap.I "The Impact of the French Revolution," pp. 1-30. Essays by Carlyle, Brinton, Lefebvre, Cobban, Rudé.

R.R. Palmer, Twelve Who Ruled: The Year of the Terror in the French Revolution (New York: Atheneum, 1965).

 


 

Seminar Topic II. The Rituals & Imagery of Political Power: Republicanism vs Monarchism

   
A Statue of Napoleon overturned by the Communards in 1870   A Statue of Victoria toppled in the struggle for independence in Georgetown, Guyana, 1966

[See the Lecture Notes for this topic.]

A. SEMINAR READING AND DISCUSSION

1. Textbook Reading

Theodore S. Hamerow, The Birth of a New Europe (1983). Hamerow has little to say directly about the power of monarchs and the symbolic representation of that power. Chap. 12 "The Nature of Authority" is a general discussion of the transition from oligarchic forms of government to more popular forms.

Eric Hobsbawm also stresses the emerging new social and political groups which replaced the traditional aristocratic class.

  • The Age of Revolution, 1789-1848 (1962): Chap. 1 "The World in the 1780s"; Chap. 3 "The French Revolution"; "The Career Open to Talent"
  • The Age of Capital, 1848-1875 (1975): Chap. 1 "'The Springtime of the Peoples'"; Chap. 6 "The Forces of Democracy"; Chap. 13 "The Bourgeois World"
  • The Age of Empire, 1875-1914 (1987): Chap. 1 "The Centarian Revolution"; Chap. 4 "The Politics of Democracy"

2. Background Reading - Secondary Sources ("Contested Meaning")

The essays by David Cannadine, "The Context, Performance and Meaning of Ritual: The British Monarchy and the 'Invention of Tradition', c.1820-1977," and Eric Hobsbawm, "Mass-Producing Traditions: Europe, 1870-1914," in The Invention of Tradition, ed. Eric Hobsbawm and Terence Ranger (Cambridge University Press, 1995).

Arno Mayer argues that historians like Hamerow and Hobsbawm have exaggerated the extent of change in political and social power, and that monarchs and traditional aristocratic elites retained considerable power well into the 19thC and even into the 20thC: Arno J. Mayer, The Persistence of the Old Regime: Europe to the Great War (New York: Pantheon, 1981).

3. Primary Sources ("Opposing Voices") in the Reader of Primary Sources

Sources Relevant to the Film:

Images of imperial or royal power:

Images of republican power and authority:

4. Film

See the handout on Abel Gance, Napoleon (1927) (LD) Part 1 2hrs or Part 2 1hr 51

5. Questions to Keep in Mind when Reading

Concerning the power of monarchs and the depiction of that power in the 19thC:

  • What power did 19th century monarchs (kings, queens, emperors) wield and what role did public rituals and ceremonies (e.g. coronations, marriages, jubilees, funerals) play in maintaining that power?
    • the coronation of Napoleon Bonaparte as Emperor (1804)
    • the cluster of coronations in the 1820s: George IV in Britain (1821); Charles X in France (1824); and Nicholas I in Russia (1825)
    • the coronation (1837), marriage and jubilee of Queen Victoria
    • 1888 - "the Year of the Three Emperors" (Wilhelm I, Frederick III, Wilhelm II) in the German Empire
  • To what extent were the "traditions" of royalty "invented" in the 19thC as argued in the book of essays The Invention of Tradition, ed. Eric Hobsbawm and Terence Ranger (1995)?
  • What does political imagery (officially commissioned art or photographs) tell us about how political leaders wished to be seen by the public? (See the list of images below)

The great challenge to monarchical power came from the republican tradition issuing from the American (1776) and French Revolutions (1789, 1848, 1871). This other political tradition also had its imagery and rituals:

  • Discuss the imagery and ritual used by "the other tradition" of the 19thC, namely republicanism (French and American), to assert its claims to legitimacy
    • see the images listed below
    • the public celebration of "revolutionary days" - "July Fourth" (USA) and "14th July" (France), especially the centennial of the American (1876) and French (1889) Revolutions

What did the figure of "Britannia" represent in the 19thC?

An historiographical question arises with the claim by Mayer that the power of the old regime "persisted" well into the late 19thC in spite of the forces of democracy and the industrial revolution:

  • Assess Mayer's claim that the old regime resisted or adapted to many of the changes introduced by the French and Industrial Revolutions and thus "persisted" well into the late 19thC

B. TOPICS FOR WRITTEN WORK

You are required to hand in a Primary Source Exercise, a Film Analysis Exercise and a Major Essay. The major Essay is due at the end of the semester. The first exercise (either on a Primary Source or on a Film) is due in the mid-semester break. The second exercise (either on a Primary Source or on a Film) is due at the relevant Seminar in the second half of the semester. You must choose a different Seminar Topic for each of these pieces of written work, in other words there can be no doubling up of topics.

1. Primary Source Exercise

"Select one of the Primary Sources in the Reader of Primary Sources and answer the following questions: what kind of primary source is it, who wrote (or painted) it, when was it written, why was it written, what does the source tell us about the past?"

In your answer you should

  • refer to the questions concerning primary sources posed in the Guide to the Primary Source Exercises - Using Primary Sources (listed below)
  • use at least 4 secondary sources listed in the Seminar Reading Guide (in addition to the textbooks by Hamerow or Hobsbawm) for information about the author and the historical context of the primary source

2. Film Analysis Exercise

"Select one of the feature films shown in this Subject and, by using at least one of the primary sources in the Reader of Primary Sources, assess the historical accuracy of the film and account for any discrepancies you find."

In your answer you should

  • refer to the issues raised in An Introduction to the Study of Film and History (listed below)
  • use at least 1 primary source from the Reader of Primary Sources and 4 secondary sources listed in the Seminar Reading Guide (in addition to the textbooks by Hamerow or Hobsbawm) for information about the events and individuals depicted in the film, the filmmaker, and the historical context in which the film was made

3. Major Essay

  • Compare and contrast the depiction of power and authority in at least one image of royalty (i.e. a king, queen, or emperor), and at least one image of a republic (i.e. "Liberty" or "Marianne") in the Reader of Primary Sources.

C. ADDITIONAL RECOMMENDED READING

Please note: The full bibliography is only available online.

1. Other Images of Monarchical and Republican Power

Monarchical or Imperial Power:

Toppled Monarchs

Republican Power - Marianne (the Republic, Liberty):

3. Reading on Monarchs and Emperors

General: "The Invention of Tradition" and the Ritual of Royalty

David Cannadine, "The Context, Performance and Meaning of Ritual: The British Monarchy and the 'Invention of Tradition', c.1820-1977," in The Invention of Tradition, ed. Eric Hobsbawm and Terence Ranger (Cambridge University Press, 1995), pp. 101-64.

Eric Hobsbawm, "Mass-Producing Traditions: Europe, 1870-1914," in The Invention of Tradition, ed. Eric Hobsbawm and Terence Ranger (Cambridge University Press, 1995), pp. 263-307.

For an anthropologist's perspective which is broadranging and stimulating: Clifford Geertz, "Centers, Kings and Charisma: Reflections on the Symbolics of Power," in Rites of Power: Symbolism, Ritual, and Politics Since the Middle Ages, ed. Sean Wilentz (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1985), pp. 13-38.

Simon Schama, "The Domestication of Majesty: Royal Family Portraiture, 1500-1850," Journal of Interdisciplinary History, vol. 17, 1986, pp. 155-83.

The French Monarchy

Richard A. Jackson, Vive le roi! A History of the French Coronation from Charles V to Charles X (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1984). Part Five: The Coronation in History anbd Chap. 12 "After Napoleon, the Denoument".

The French Revolution

Lynn Hunt, Politics, Culture and Class in the French Revolution (University of California Press, 1984). Part I: The Poetics of Power" - Chap. 1"The Rhetoric of Revolution," pp. 19-51; Chap. 2 "Symbolic Forms of Political Practice," pp. 52-86; Chap. 3 "The Imagery of Radicalism," pp. 87-119.

Mona Ozouf, Festivals and the French Revolution (Harvard University Press, 1988).

Napoleon Bonaparte

Albert Boime, Art in an Age of Bonapartism, 1800-1815 (University of Chicago Press, 1990). Chap. 2 "The Iconography of Napoleon," pp. 35-95.

Martyn Lyons, Napoleon Bonaparte and the Legacy of the French Revolution (London: Macmillan, 1994). Chap. 13 "Art, Propaganda and the Cult of Personality," pp. 178-94.

Warren Roberts, Jacques-Louis David, Revolutionary Artist: Art, Politics, and the French Revolution (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1989). Chap. 4 "David and Napoleon," pp. 129-86.

19thC France

Maurice Agulhon, "Politics, Images, and Symbols in Post-Revolutionary France," in Rites of Power: Symbolism, Ritual, and Politics Since the Middle Ages, ed. Sean Wilentz (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1985), pp. 177-205.

Britain

David Cannadine, "The Context, Performance and Meaning of Ritual: The British Monarchy and the 'Invention of Tradition', c.1820-1977," in The Invention of Tradition, ed. Eric Hobsbawm and Terence Ranger (Cambridge University Press, 1995), pp. 101-64.

Crown Pictorial: Art and the English Monarchy, ed. Linda Colley et al. (New Haven, Conn.: 1990).

Linda Colley, "The Apotheosis of George III: Loyalty, Royalty and the British Nation, 1760-1820," Past and Present, vol. 102, February 1984, pp. 94-129.

Remaking Queen Victoria, ed. Margaret Homans and Adrienne Munich (Cambridge University Press, 1997). See the essays by:

  • Margaret Homans and Adrienne Munich, "Introduction", pp. 1-10
  • Elizabeth Langland, "Nation and nationality: Queen Victoria in the developing narrative of Englishness," pp. 13-32.
  • Susan Casteras, "The wise child and her "offspring": somoe changing faces of Queen Victoria," pp. 182-199.

Lytton Strachey, The Illustrated Queen Victoria (1921), ed. Michael Holdroyd (London: Bloomsbury, 1987).

The German States/Second Reich

Elisabeth Fehrenbach "Images of Kaiserdom: German Attitudes to Kaiser Wilhelm II," in Kaiser Wilhelm II: New Interpretations, ed. John C. G. Röhl and Nicolaus Sombart (Cambridge University Press, 1982), pp.269-85.

Michael Balfour, The Kaiser and His Times (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1975). Several interesting photographs.

Russia

Richard S. Wortman, "Moscow and Petersburg: The Problem of Political Center in Tsarist Russia, 1881-1914," in Rites of Power: Symbolism, Ritual, and Politics Since the Middle Ages, ed. Sean Wilentz (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1985), pp. 244-71.

Richard S. Wortman, Scenarios of Power: Myth and Ceremony in Russian Monarchy. Vol. One From Peter the Great to the Death of Nicholas 1 (Princeton University Press, 1995).

Austria

Marie Tanner, The Last Descendant of Aeneas: The Hapsburgs and the Mythic Image of Emperor (New Haven, 1993).

4. Reading on Republican Imagery

France

Maurice Agulhon, Marianne into Battle: Republican Imagery and Symbolism in France, 1789-1880, trans. Janet Lloyd (Cambridge University press, 1981).

USA

Marvin Trachtenberg, The Statue of Liberty (London: Penguin, 1976).

 


 

Seminar Topic III. Competing Visions of Freedom & Reform: Mill's Liberalism vs Marx's Socialism

   
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels  John Stuart Mill  and Harriet Taylor 

[See the Lecture Notes for this topic. Also this and this.]

A. SEMINAR READING AND DISCUSSION

PLEASE NOTE: SEMINAR DEBATE TOPIC

From the perspective of either the classical liberal John Stuart Mill or the socialist Karl Marx, debate the following question:

  • "What is wrong with European society in the mid-19th century and what should or could be done to remedy the situation?"

1. Textbook Reading

Theodore S. Hamerow, The Birth of a New Europe (1983): Chap. 8 The Emergence of the Labor Question"; Chap. 9 "Civic Ideologies and Social Values"

Eric Hobsbawm

  • The Age of Revolution, 1789-1848 (1962): Chap. 10 "The Career Open to Talent"; Chap. 11 "The Labouring Poor"; Chap. 13 "Ideology: Secular"
  • The Age of Capital, 1848-1875 (1975): Chap. 1 "'The Springtime of the Peoples'"; Chap. 6 "The Forces of Democracy"; Chap. 9 "Changing Society"; Chap. 12 "City, Industry, the Working Class"
  • The Age of Empire, 1875-1914 (1987): Chap. 4 "The Politics of Democracy"; Chap. 5 "Workers of the World"; Chap. 12 "Towards Revolution"

2. Background Reading - Secondary Sources ("Contested Meaning")

Himmelfarb's "Introduction," pp. 7-49 to John Stuart Mill, On Liberty (1859), ed. Gertrude Himmelfarb (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1984).

Taylor's "Introduction," pp. 7-47 to Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, The Communist Manifesto (1848), ed. A.J.P. Taylor (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1985).

Eric Hobsbawm's Introduction to the 150th anniversary edition of Karl Marx and Federick Engels, The Communist Manifesto: A Modern Edition (London: Verso, 1998), pp. 1-29.

3. Primary Sources ("Opposing Voices") in the Reader of Primary Sources or as an Online E-Text

  • Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, The Communist Manifesto (1848), ed. A.J.P. Taylor (1985) - extracts from pp. 78-83, 95-105. An E-Text version from "The Avalon Project" at Yale University is also available:
    • INTRODUCTION
    • I. BOURGEOIS AND PROLETARIANS
    • II. PROLETARIANS AND COMMUNISTS
    • III. SOCIALIST AND COMMUNIST LITERATURE
    • IV. POSITION OF THE COMMUNISTS IN RELATION TO THE VARIOUS EXISTING OPPOSITION PARTIES
  • John Stuart Mill, On Liberty (1859), ed. Gertrude Himmelfarb (1984) - extracts from pp. 58-63, 68-71, 75-78, 119-23, 130-34, 141-3,156-59, 163-68, 175-77. An E-Text version of On Liberty is also available. The original source is the Project Bartleby Archive at Columbia University. A local copy is:
    • Table of Contents
    • Bibliographic Record
    • Preface
    • I. Introductory
    • II. Of the Liberty of Thought and Discussion
    • III. Of Individuality, as One of the Elements of Well-Being
    • IV. Of the Limits to the Authority of Society over the Individual
    • V. Applications
  • John Stuart Mill, The Subjection of Women (1869) - as an E-Text
  • Other E-Text collections
    • See also the "Socialism" section of the Internet Modern History Sourcebook at Fordham University.
    • Marx/Engels Internet Archive - A massive site containing most of the works of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engles and many other writers in the Marxist traditon.

4. Film

There is no film for this topic.

5. Questions to Keep in Mind when Reading and Watching

Socialism/Marxism

  • what criticisms did socialists like Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels have of European society in 1848?
  • what are the core beliefs of a socialist like Marx?
  • when did "socialism" emerge as a distinctive tradition of political and economic thought?
  • how did "socialism" change during the course of the 19thC?
  • what do "socialists" believe in the late 20thC?
  • what attitudes did socialists have to the following:
    • democracy, parliament
    • revolution, the French Revolution
    • the capitalist system, industrialisation
    • government regulation of the economy
    • traditional elites (monarchs, princes, nobles)
    • new elites (capitalists, factory owners, bourgeoisie)
    • the workers, the proletariat
    • women
    • war, empire

Classical Liberalism

  • what criticism of European society did a liberal like John Stuart Mill have of European society in 1859?
  • what are the core beliefs of a classical liberal like Mill?
  • when did "liberalism" emerge as a distinctive tradition of political and economic thought?
  • how did "liberalism" change during the course of the 19thC?
  • what do "liberals" believe in the late 20thC?
  • what attitudes did classical liberals have to the following:
    • democracy, parliament
    • revolution, the French Revolution
    • the capitalist system, industrialisation
    • government regulation of the economy
    • traditional elites (monarchs, princes, nobles)
    • new elites (capitalists, factory owners, bourgeoisie)
    • the workers, the proletariat
    • women
    • war, empire

B. TOPICS FOR WRITTEN WORK

You are required to hand in a Primary Source Exercise, a Film Analysis Exercise and a Major Essay. The major Essay is due at the end of the semester. The first exercise (either on a Primary Source or on a Film) is due in the mid-semester break. The second exercise (either on a Primary Source or on a Film) is due at the relevant Seminar in the second half of the semester. You must choose a different Seminar Topic for each of these pieces of written work, in other words there can be no doubling up of topics.

1. Primary Source Exercise

"Select one of the Primary Sources in the Reader of Primary Sources and answer the following questions: what kind of primary source is it, who wrote (or painted) it, when was it written, why was it written, what does the source tell us about the past?"

In your answer you should

  • refer to the questions concerning primary sources posed in the Guide to the Primary Source Exercises - Using Primary Sources (listed below)
  • use at least 4 secondary sources listed in the Seminar Reading Guide (in addition to the textbooks by Hamerow or Hobsbawm) for information about the author and the historical context of the primary source

2. Film Analysis Exercise

"Select one of the feature films shown in this Subject and, by using at least one of the primary sources in the Reader of Primary Sources, assess the historical accuracy of the film and account for any discrepancies you find."

In your answer you should

  • refer to the issues raised in An Introduction to the Study of Film and History (listed below)
  • use at least 1 primary source from the Reader of Primary Sources and 4 secondary sources listed in the Seminar Reading Guide (in addition to the textbooks by Hamerow or Hobsbawm) for information about the events and individuals depicted in the film, the filmmaker, and the historical context in which the film was made

3. Major Essay

  • Compare and contrast the criticisms of mid-19th century European society made by John Stuart Mill and Karl Marx.

C. ADDITIONAL RECOMMENDED READING

Please note: The full bibliography is only available online.

1. "Opposing Voices" (Primary Sources)

John Stuart Mill

John Stuart Mill, On Liberty (1859), ed. Gertrude Himmelfarb (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1984). Himmelfarb's "Introduction," pp. 7-49 and Mill's "Introductory," pp. 59-74.

John Stuart Mill, On Liberty and Other Essays, ed. John Gray (Oxford University Press, 1991). John Gray's introduction pp. vii-xxx and Mill's essay.

Other Classical Liberals

A very useful, comprehensive anthology of classical liberal writers with a lengthy historical introduction: Western Liberalism: A History in Documents from Locke to Croce, ed. E.K. Bramsted and K.J. Melhuish (London: Longamn, 1978).

Herbert Spencer, The Man vs. the State (1884) - E-Text:

  • PREFACE
  • I. THE NEW TORYISM
  • II. THE COMING SLAVERY
    • Notes
  • III. THE SINS OF LEGISLATORS
    • Notes
  • IV. THE GREAT POLITICAL SUPERSTITION
    • Notes
  • V. POSTSCRIPT
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels

Karl Marx and Friedrich. Engels, The Communist Manifesto (1848), ed. A.J.P. Taylor (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1985). Taylor's "Introduction," pp. 7-47 and the "Manifesto."

Other Socialists and "Marxists"

An anthology of pre-Marxist socialist writers: Before Marx: Socialism and Communism in France, 1830-48, ed. Paul Corcoran (London: Macmillan).

2. "Contested Meaning" (Secondary Sources)

On Mill

Gertrude Himmelfarb, On Liberty and Liberalism: The Case of John Stuart Mill (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1974). Chap. 1 "'One Very Simple Principle'," pp. 3-22.

William Thomas, J.S. Mill (Oxford Past Masters: Oxford University Press, 1985).

John M. Robson, The Improvement of Mankind (University of Toronto Press, 1968).

Alan Ryan, J.S. Mill (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1974).

John Gray, Liberalism (Milton Keynes: Open University Press, 1986).

On Marx

David McLellan, Karl Marx (Fontana Modern Masters).

David McLellan, Karl Marx: His Life and Thought (New York: Harper, 1977).

Shlomo Avinieri, The Social and Political Thought of Karl Marx (Cambridge University Press, 1968).

David McClellan, Karl Marx: His Life and Thought (New York: Harper, 1977).

Alan Gilbert, Marx's Politics: Communists and Citizens (Oxford: Martin Robertson, 1981). Chap. VIII "The Communist Manifesto and Marx's Strategies," pp. 125-35.

John M. Maguire, Marx's Theory of Politics (Cambridge University Press, 1978). Chap 2 "Perspectives on Revolution: Marx's Position on the Eve of 1848," pp. 28-47.

Thomas Sowell, Marxism: Philosophy and Economics (New York: William Morrow and Co., 1985).

On Socialism

George Lichtheim, A Short History of Socialism (London, 1970).

R.N. Berki, Socialism (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1975). Chap. 4 "The Nature of the Marxian Achievement," pp. 56-72.

G.D.H. Cole, A History of Socialist Thought, 5 vols (London: Macmillan, 1953-).

Alexander Gray, The Socialist Tradition: Moses to Lenin (London: Longman's, 1963).

On Classical Liberalism

Anthony Arblaster, The Rise and Decline of Western Liberalism (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1984).

John Gray, Liberalism (Milton Keynes: Open University Press, 1986).

See the Web Site for my subject "Liberal Europe and Social Change 1815-1914"

See the Web Site of my PhD on early 19thC French liberal thought: CLASS ANALYSIS, SLAVERY AND THE INDUSTRIALIST THEORY OF HISTORY IN FRENCH LIBERAL THOUGHT, 1814-1830: THE RADICAL LIBERALISM OF CHARLES COMTE AND CHARLES DUNOYER (1994).

James J. Sheehan, German Liberalism in the Nineteenth Century (London: Methuen, 1982).

Gordon A. Craig, The Triumph of Liberalism: Zurich in the Golden Age, 1830-1869 (New York: Collier, 1988).

André Jardin, History of Political Liberalism in France from the Crisis of Absolutism to the Constitution of 1875 (1985).

Massimo Salvadori,The Liberal Heresy: Origins and Historical Development (London: Macmillan, 1977).

D.J. Manning, Liberalism (London: J.M. Dent and Sons, 1982).

Ludwig von Mises, Liberalism: A Socio-Economic Exposition, tr. Ralph Raico (Kansas City: Sheed Andrews and McMeel, 1978).

Steven Lukes, Individualism (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1973).

Guido de Ruggiero, The History of European Liberalism, trans. R.G. Collingwood (Boston: Beacon Press, 1959).

 


 

Seminar Topic IV. The Abolition of Serfdom & Slavery

   
 Daumier, "Philanthopist of the Moment" (1844) - "How many times have I told you not to call me master... you must learn that all men are free, you beast!"   William Blake, "A Negro Hung Alive by the Ribs to a Gallows" (1796)

[See the Lecture Notes for this topic. And this.]

A. SEMINAR READING AND DISCUSSION

1. Textbook Reading

Theodore S. Hamerow, The Birth of a New Europe (1983). There is very little on the abolition of serfdom and slavery in Hamerow. Chap. 2 "The Transformation of Agriculture" puts serfdom into the broader context of agricultural change.

Eric Hobsbawm: again, very little of the emancipation of serfs and slaves per se, although the theme of "emancipation" pervades the trilogy of texts.

  • The Age of Revolution, 1789-1848 (1962). Chap. 1 "The World in the 1780s" and Chap. 8 "Land" deals with serfdom in general.
  • The Age of Capital, 1848-1875 (1975). Chap. 10 "The Land" treats serfdom briefly.
  • The Age of Empire, 1875-1914 (1987). Very little on serfdom or slavery as it had been by and large abolished by the late 19thC.

2. Background Reading - Secondary Sources ("Contested Meaning")

The most comprehensive and detailed account of the ending of serfdom in Europe over the period 1771 (Savoy) to 1864 (Roumania): Jerome Blum, The End of the Old Order in Rural Europe (Princeton University Press, 1978). Part One describes the traditional life of peasants and serfs. Part Two deals with the early efforts at reform from above - see Chap. 14 "The Old Order Attacked and Defended" for summaries of the main arguments used in the debate; and Chap. 15 "Peasant Unrest" on the pressure from below. Part Three deals extensively with Emancipation.

An excellent comparative account which examines slavery and abolition in the British, American, French, and Spanish colonies and metropoles: Robin Blackburn, The Overthrow of Colonial Slavery 1776-1848 (London: Verso, 1988). See the early chapters for the impact of the American and French Revolutions on slavery and abolitionism. Chap. XI "The Struggle for British Slave Emancipation: 1823-38" and Chap. XII "French Restoration Slavery and 1848" are the most relevant to our needs.

Albert Boime, "The Revulsion to Cruelty," The Art of Exclusion: Representing Blacks in the Nineteenth Century (London: Thames and Hudson, 1990), pp. 47-78.

3. Primary Sources ("Opposing Voices") in the Reader of Primary Sources or as an Online E-Text

Sources Relevant to the Film:

  • A web archive of primary sources related to the Amistade case - http://amistad.mysticseaport.org/library/court/welcome.html

  • Extracts from The Amistad Case: The Most Celebrated Slave Mutiny of the Nineteenth Century. Two Volumes in One. (New York: Johnson Reprint Corp., 1968).
    • Africans Taken in the Amistad (U.S. 26th Congress, 1st Session, H. Exec. Doc. 185) (New York, 1840).
    • Argument of John Quincy Adams before the Supreme Court of the United States, in the case of the U.S., appellants, vs. Cinque, and other Africans, captured in the schooner Amistad (New York, 1841).
      • TITLE PAGE
      • PART I
      • PART II
      • PART III
      • PART IV
      • PART V
  • Selected Primary Sources on the Amistad Case
  • Images
    • Plans and cutaways (one and two) of the slave-ship "The Brookes" published by The Society for Christian Morals (1822) in La traite des noirs au siècle des lumières (Témoinages de négriers), ed. Jean-Louis Vissiere (Paris: Métailié, 1982), pp. 40-41.
    • Woodruff's 1939 mural celebratiing the 100th anniversary of the Amistad case: Mutiny - Trial - Return

Other Sources:

  • Politics and the Public Conscience: Slave Emancipation and the Abolitionist Movement in Britain, ed. Edith F. Hurwitz (1973) -
    • "From William Wilberforce, An Appeal to the Religion, Justice and Humanity of the Inhabitiants of the British Empire on Behalf of the Negro Slaves in the West Indies (London, 1823)" pp. 101-12
    • "From the Speech of Edward Stanley, Secretary of State for the Colonies, Introducing the Government Plan for the Emancipation of the Slaves, 14 May 1833" pp. 145-55
    • "From Petition of Lords Wellington, St Vincent, Penshurst, and Wynford against the Emancipation Act, 20 August, 1833" pp. 156-7.
  • Legislation emancipating serfs fromDocuments of European Economic History, ed. S. Pollard and C. Holmes (1968). Vol. One:
    • "Abolition of Serfdom in France" (1789) pp. 189-91. E-Text version.
    • "Peasant Emancipation in Prussia: Law of 1807" pp. 214-5
    • "Abolition of Serfdom in Austria, 1848" pp. 222-3
    • Russia - "The Statutes of Emancipation, 1861" pp. 233-38
  • Images

4. Film

See the handout on Steven Spielberg, Amistad (1997) 2hrs 35.

5. Questions to Keep in Mind when Reading and Watching

  • Discuss the contribution, if any, of the following factors which historians believe contributed to the abolition of slavery (and other forms of compulsory labour such as serfdom in Eastern Europe and convictism in the Australian colonies):
    • Christianity
    • enlightened and/or liberal humanitarianism
    • the rise of Capitalism
    • the economic interests of particular classes, especially reform-minded landowners and state bureaucrats
    • international pressure
    • the political campaigning by women
    • the agitation of slaves (serfs, convicts) for change
    • Revolution (American, French, 1848)
  • what arguments were used to justify serfdom, slavery, and other forms of compulsory labour (e.g. convictism)?
  • what arguments were used by refomers and/or abolitionists to oppose serfdom, slavery, and other forms of compulsory labour?
  • what impact, if any, did the debate about slavery have on the use of convicts in Australia?

B. TOPICS FOR WRITTEN WORK

You are required to hand in a Primary Source Exercise, a Film Analysis Exercise and a Major Essay. The major Essay is due at the end of the semester. The first exercise (either on a Primary Source or on a Film) is due in the mid-semester break. The second exercise (either on a Primary Source or on a Film) is due at the relevant Seminar in the second half of the semester. You must choose a different Seminar Topic for each of these pieces of written work, in other words there can be no doubling up of topics.

1. Primary Source Exercise

"Select one of the Primary Sources in the Reader of Primary Sources and answer the following questions: what kind of primary source is it, who wrote (or painted) it, when was it written, why was it written, what does the source tell us about the past?"

In your answer you should

  • refer to the questions concerning primary sources posed in the Guide to the Primary Source Exercises - Using Primary Sources (listed below)
  • use at least 4 secondary sources listed in the Seminar Reading Guide (in addition to the textbooks by Hamerow or Hobsbawm) for information about the author and the historical context of the primary source

2. Film Analysis Exercise

"Select one of the feature films shown in this Subject and, by using at least one of the primary sources in the Reader of Primary Sources, assess the historical accuracy of the film and account for any discrepancies you find."

In your answer you should

  • refer to the issues raised in An Introduction to the Study of Film and History (listed below)
  • use at least 1 primary source from the Reader of Primary Sources and 4 secondary sources listed in the Seminar Reading Guide (in addition to the textbooks by Hamerow or Hobsbawm) for information about the events and individuals depicted in the film, the filmmaker, and the historical context in which the film was made

3. Major Essay

  • Assess the importance of at least two factors which led to the abolition of either slavery or serfdom in the 19thC.

C. ADDITIONAL RECOMMENDED READING

Please note: The full bibliography is only available online.

1. "Opposing Voices" (Primary Sources)

Alexis de Tocqueville, "Report on Abolition" (1839) in Tocqueville and Beaumont on Social Reform, ed. Seymour Drescher (1968), extracts from pp. 98-105, 111-117, 128-32, 135-36.

Images

Extracts from contemporary travellers' accounts of peasant life and emancipation documents. Documents of European Economic History, ed. S. Pollard and C. Holmes (London: Edward Arnold, 1968). Vol. One - "The Process of Industrialization 1750-1870":

  • Chap. 1 "Agriculture": docs. on serfdom, peasantry, and land tenure
  • Chap. 6 "The Revolutionary Legislation and the Agrarian Settlement in France": "The Abolition of Serfdom in France" and docs. on land tenure
  • Chap. 7 "Peasant Emancipation in Germany and the Austrian Empire"
  • Chap 8 "Peasant Emancipation in Russia"
Defenders of Serfdom/Slavery

Contains a good chapter on European racism as a justification for black slavery: William B. Cohen, The French Encounter with Africans: White Response to Blacks, 1530-1880 (Indiana University Press, 1980). Chap. 7 "The Nineteenth Century Confronts Slavery, pp. 181-209 and Chap. 8 "Scientific Racism," pp. 210-62.

Reformers and Abolitionists

Politics and the Public Conscience: Slave Emancipation and the Abolitionist Movement in Britain, ed. Edith F. Hurwitz (London: George Allen and Unwin, 1973).

Alexis de Tocqueville, "Part 3: Abolition of Slavery," (1839, 1843) in Tocqueville and Beaumont on Social Reform, ed. Seymour Drescher (New York: Harper and Row, 1968), pp. 98-173.

2. "Contested Meaning" (Secondary Sources)

David Brion Davis, The Problem of Slavery in the Age of Revolution, 1770-1823 (Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1975)

The Amistad Case

Additional bibliography on the Amistad case.

Bertram Wyatt-Brown, Review of Amistad in The Journal of American History, December 1998, pp. 1174-76.

Nobles and Landowners

Dominic Lieven, The Aristocracy in Europe, 1815-1914 (New York : Columbia University Press, 1993).

Terrence Emmons, The Russian Landed Gentry and the Peasant Emancipation (Cambridge University Press, 1968).

Peasants

Annie Moulin, Peasantry and Society in France since 1789, trans. M.C. and M.F. Cleary (Cambridge University Press, 1988).

Our Forgotten Past: Seven Centuries of Life on the Land, ed. J. Blum (London: Thames and Hudson, 1982). Excellent general survey with a good selection of art dealing with peasant life. See especially Blum," The Nobility and the Land," pp. 33-56; Blum, "From Servitude to Freedom," pp. 57-80.

Werner Rösener, The Peasantry of Europe, trans. Thomas M. Barker (Oxford: Blackwell, 1995). Chap. 9. "Economic Shifts, Nutritional Problems and Rural Society," pp. 142-56 and Chap. 11 "Emancipation and Reform," pp.171-87.

Defenders of Serfdom/Slavery

Winthrop D. Jordan, White Over Black: American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550-1812 (New York: Norton, 1977).

France and Slavery

Seymour Drescher, "The Abolition of Slavery," Dilemmas of Democracy: Tocqueville and Modernization (University of Pittsburgh Press, 1968), pp. 151-95.

Sally Gershman, "Alexis de Tocqueville and Slavery," French Historical Studies, 1976, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 467-83.

Mary Lawlor, "The Right of Search" and "Slavery in the French Colonies" in Alexis de Tocqueville in the Chamber of Deputies: His Views on Foreign and Colonial Policy (Washington, D.C.: The Catholic University of America Press, 1959), pp. 67-130.

Britain and Slavery

Slavery and British Society 1776-1846, ed. James Walvin (London: Macmillan, 1982).

Howard Temperley, British Anti-Slavery, 1823-1870 (London: Longman, 1972).

Lawrence C. Jennings, "France, Great Britain and the Repression of the Slave Trade, 1841-1845," French Historical Studies, 1977, vol. 10, pp. 101-25.

Lawrence C. Jennings, "The French Press and Great Britain's Campaign against the Slave Trade, 1830-1848," Revue française d'Histoire d'Outre-Mer, 1980, vol. 67, no. 246-247, pp. 5-24.

Serge Daget, "A Model of the French Abolitionist Movement and its Variations," in Anti-Slavery, Religion and Reform: Essays in Memory of Roger Anstey, ed. Christine Bolt and Seymour Drescher (Folkstone: William Dawson, 1980), pp. 64-79.

Anti-Slavery, Religion and Reform: Essays in Memory of Roger Anstey, ed. Christine Bolt and Seymour Drescher (Folkstone: William Dawson, 1980).

Betty Fladeland, Abolitionists and Working Class Problems in the Age of Industrialization (London: Macmillan, 1984). Especially the chapter on Harriet Martineau.

Louis Billington and Rosamund Billington, "'A Burning Zeal for Righteousness': Women in the British Anti-Slavery Movement, 1820-1860," in Equal or Different: Women's Politics 1800-1914, ed. Jane Rendall (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1987), pp. 82-111.

Historiography

The debate between Haskell, Davis and Ashworth in a "Forum" in the American Historical Review in October 1987 originating from Davis's book and Haskell's earlier articles:

  • Thomas L. Haskell, "Capitalism and the Origins of the Humanitarian Sensibility, Part 1," American Historical Review, April 1985, vol. 90, no. 2
  • Thomas L. Haskell, "Capitalism and the Origins of the Humanitarian Sensibility, Part 2," American Historical Review, June 1985, vol. 90, no. 3
  • David Brion Davis, "Reflections on Abolitionism and Ideological Hegemony,"; John Ashworth, "The Relationship between Capitalism and Humanitarianism," and Thomas L. Haskell, "Convention and Hegemonic Interest in the Debate over Anti-Slavery: A Reply to David and Ashworth," in the "Forum" in American Historical Review, October 1987, vol. 92, no. 4.

The above essays and other material is collected in The Antislavery Debate: Capitalism and Abolitionism as a Problem in Historical Interpretation, ed. Thomas Bender (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992).

Art and Slavery

Albert Boime, The Art of Exclusion: Representing Blacks in the Nineteenth Century (London: Thames and Hudson, 1990).

Hugh Honour

The Problem of Slavery

David Brion Davis, The Problem of Slavery in Western Culture (Penguin, 1970).

David Brion Davis, Slavery and Human Progress (Oxford University Press, 1984).

Sidney Pollard, "Agriculture: Emancipation, Markets and Dynamics," in Peaceful Conquest: The Industrialization of Europe, 1760-1970 (Oxford University Press, 1981), pp. 192-200.

The United States of America and Slavery

Texts to come

Russia and Serfdom

Daniel Field, The End of Serfdom: Nobility and Bureaucracy in Russia, 1855-1861 (Harvard University Press, 1976).

Eastern Europe and Slavery

Jerome Blum, The End of the Old Order in Rural Europe (Princeton University Press, 1978).

Australia and Convictism

J.B. Hirst, Convict Socierty and its Enemies: A History of Early New South Wales (Sydney: George Allen and Unwin, 1985).

Colin Forster, France and Botany Bay: The Lure of a Penal Colony (Melbourne University Press, 1996).

 


 

Seminar Topic V. The Impact of the Industrial Revolution I: On Ordinary People

   
The Opening of the Crystal Palace, 1851   Gustave Doré, London at Night (1871)

[See the Lecture Notes for this topic.]

A. SEMINAR READING AND DISCUSSION

PLEASE NOTE: SEMINAR DEBATE TOPIC

Take the perspective of an "optimist" like the historian Max Hartwell (and/or the 19thC manufacturer Ure) or a critic/pessimist like the historian Eric Hobsbawm (and/or the 19thC manufacturer and colleague of Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels), and argue for or against the following proposition:

  • "That the Industrial Revolution liberated ordinary working people from the tyranny of poverty."

1. Textbook Reading

Theodore S. Hamerow, The Birth of a New Europe: State and Society in the Nineteenth Century (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1983). Especially Chapter 5 "The Standard of Living" but also chapters 1, 4, 7, and 8.

Eric Hobsbawm:

  • The Age of Revolution, 1789-1848 (1962) (New York: Mentor). Chap. 2 "The Industrial Revolution" and Chaps 9, 10, 11.
  • The Age of Capital, 1848-1875 (1975) (London: Abacus, 1997). Chap. 2 "The Great Boom"; Chap. 12 "City, Industry, the Working Class".
  • The Age of Empire, 1875-1914 (1987) (London: Abacus, 1997). Chap. 2 "An Economy Changes Gear" and Chap. 5.

2. Background Reading - Secondary Sources ("Contested Meaning")

The Industrial Revolution in Britain: Triumph or Disaster? (revised ed.), ed. Philip A.M. Taylor (Lexington, Mass.: D.C. Heath, 1970). Essays by Hobsbawm and Hartwell, pp. 25-43.

The Standard of Living in Britain in the Industrial Revolution, ed. A.J. Taylor (London, 1975).

  • "Editor's Introduction," pp. xi-lv and a selection of the following articles:
  • chap. 4 E.J. Hobsbawm, "The British Standard of Living, 1790-1850," pp. 58-92;
  • chap. 5 R.M. Hartwell, "The Rising Standard of Living in England, 1800-1850," pp. 93-123;
  • chap. 8 "Essays in Postscript" by Hobsbawm, "The Standard of Living Debate," pp. 179-88 and
  • R.M. Hartwell and S. Engerman, "Models of Immiseration: The Theoretical Basis for Pessimism," in , pp. 189-213.

The Industrial Revolution in Comparative Perspective, ed. Porter and Teich ().

3. Primary Sources ("Opposing Voices") in the Reader of Primary Sources

Sources Relevant to the Film:

  • Extracts from Émile Zola, L'Assomoir, trans. Leonard Tancock (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1985).
    • working in the public laundry, pp. 34-49
    • making a home for themselves, pp. 107-117
    • starting her own laundry business, pp. 139-53
  • "Working Women in France" in Women, the Family, and Freedom: The Debate in Documents, ed. Susan Groag Bell and Karen M. Offen (Stanford University Press, 1983), vol. 1, 1750-1880:
    • Jules Simon (1861), pp. 457-59
    • Julie-Victoire Daubié (1866), pp. 459-62.

Other Sources:

  • Andrew Ure, "The Blessings of the Factory System" from The Philosophy of Manufactures (1835) - extract in Nature and Industrialization, ed. Alasdair Clayre (1977), pp. 67-72. An E-Text extract.
  • Frederick Engels, "The Great Towns" fromThe Condition of the Working Class in England From Personal Observation and Authentic Sources (1845), ed. Eric Hobsbawm (1969), pp. 57-60, 78-85. Another extract as an E-Text.

4. Film

See the handout on

  • Claude Berri, Germinal (1993) 2hrs 38 or
  • René Clément, Gervaise (1956) 1hr 50

5. Questions to Keep in Mind when Reading and Watching

  • why did the industial revolution (IR) occur in Britain first?
  • how does one account for its spread from west to east during the 19thC?
  • what groups benefited from the changes brought about by the IR? in the short term? in the long term?
  • what groups lost out from the changes brought about by the IR? in the short term? in the long term?
  • what factors interrupted the spread of the IR? in the short term? in the long term?
  • what factors encouraged the spread of the IR? in the short term? in the long term?
  • what was the reaction to the IR of socialists? conservatives? liberals?
  • what impact did the IR have on women? peasants? landowners?
  • what part in the economy did colonies like Australia play?

B. TOPICS FOR WRITTEN WORK

You are required to hand in a Primary Source Exercise, a Film Analysis Exercise and a Major Essay. The major Essay is due at the end of the semester. The first exercise (either on a Primary Source or on a Film) is due in the mid-semester break. The second exercise (either on a Primary Source or on a Film) is due at the relevant Seminar in the second half of the semester. You must choose a different Seminar Topic for each of these pieces of written work, in other words there can be no doubling up of topics.

1. Primary Source Exercise

"Select one of the Primary Sources in the Reader of Primary Sources and answer the following questions: what kind of primary source is it, who wrote (or painted) it, when was it written, why was it written, what does the source tell us about the past?"

In your answer you should

  • refer to the questions concerning primary sources posed in the Guide to the Primary Source Exercises - Using Primary Sources (listed below)
  • use at least 4 secondary sources listed in the Seminar Reading Guide (in addition to the textbooks by Hamerow or Hobsbawm) for information about the author and the historical context of the primary source

2. Film Analysis Exercise

"Select one of the feature films shown in this Subject and, by using at least one of the primary sources in the Reader of Primary Sources, assess the historical accuracy of the film and account for any discrepancies you find."

In your answer you should

  • refer to the issues raised in An Introduction to the Study of Film and History (listed below)
  • use at least 1 primary source from the Reader of Primary Sources and 4 secondary sources listed in the Seminar Reading Guide (in addition to the textbooks by Hamerow or Hobsbawm) for information about the events and individuals depicted in the film, the filmmaker, and the historical context in which the film was made

3. Major Essay

  • Evaluate the arguments of the "optimists" (like Ure, Hartwell, Hamerow, and Williamson) and the "pessimists" (like Engels, Zola, and Hobsbawm) on the impact of the Industrial Revolution on ordinary people in the 19th century.

C. ADDITIONAL RECOMMENDED READING

Please note: The full bibliography is only available online.

1. "Opposing Voices" (Primary Sources)

The anthology of primary sources: Nature and Industrialization, ed. Alasdair Clayre (Oxford University Press, 1977). See the extracts by Andrew Ure, pp. 67 ff.; Samuel Smiles, pp. 253 ff and Friedrich Engels, pp. 122 ff and 244 ff.

Another anthology which stresses the negative view: The Impact of the Industrial Revolution: Protest and Alienation, ed. Peter N. Stearns (Englewood, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1972).

Images

Emile Zola

Émile Zola, L'Assomoir, trans. Leonard Tancock (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1985).

Émile Zola, Germinal, (Harmondsworth: Penguin).

2. "Contested Meaning" (Secondary Sources)

The Industrial Revolution in Britain: Triumph or Disaster? (revised ed.), ed. Philip A.M. Taylor (Lexington, Mass.: D.C. Heath, 1970). Essays by Hobsbawm and Hartwell, pp. 25-43.

E.J. Hobsbawm and R.M. Hartwell, "The Standard of Living during the Industrial Revolution: A Discussion," Economic History Review, 2nd series, vol. 16, 1963, no. 1.

A Century for Debate, 1789-1914: Problems in the Interpretation of European History, ed. Peter N. Stearns (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1975). Chap. IV "The Working Class in the Early Industrial Revolution," pp. 94-128. Essays by Kuczynski, Ashton, Hobsbawm, Dolléans, Stearns.

Opponents of Industrialisation (Pessimists & Critics)

E.J. Hobsbawm, The Pelican Economic History of Britain. Vol. 3: Industry and Empire, from 1750 to the Present Day (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1970). Chap 4 "The Human Results of the Industrial Revolution 1750-1850," pp. 79-96.

E.P. Thompson, The Making of the English Working Class (New York: Vintage, 1966). Chap 6 "Exploitation," pp. 189-212 and Chap. 10 "Standards and Experiences," pp. 314-49.

Proponents of Industrialisation (Optimists)

J.G. Williamson, "Why was British Growth so Slow during the Industrial Revolution?" Journal of Economic History, September 1984, pp. 687-712.

Nathan Rosenberg and L.E. Birdzell, Jr., How the West Grew Rich: The Economic Transformation of the Industrial World (New York: Basic Books, 1986). Chap. 1 "Introduction"; Chap. 5 "The Development of Industry: 1750-1880".

R.M. Hartwell, "The Rising Standard of Living in England, 1800-1850" and "The Standard of Living: An Answer to The Pessimists," in R.M. Hartwell, The Industrial Revolution and Economic Growth (London: Methuen, 1971), pp. 313-60.

Jeffrey G. Williamson, Did British Capitalism Breed Inequality? (Boston: Allen and Unwin, 1985). Chap 2 "Real Wages and the Standard of Living," pp. 7-31.

W.H. Hutt, "The Factory System of the Early 19th Century," in Capitalism and the Historians, ed. F.A. Hayek (University of Chicago Press, 1963, pp. 156-184.

Britain

The Industrial Revolution and British Society, ed. Patrick O'Brien and Roland Quinault (Cambridge University Press, 1993).

David S. Landes, The Unbound Prometheus: Technological Change and Industrial Development in Western Europe from 1750 to the Present (Cambridge University Press, 1981). Chapter 2 and 3.

Phyllis Deane, The First Industrial Revolution (Cambridge University Press, 1990). Chap. 15 "Standards of Living," pp. 255-71.

T.S. Ashton, "The Standard of Life of the Workers in England, 1790-1830," in Capitalism and the Historians, ed. F.A. Hayek (University of Chicago Press, 1974), pp. 123-55.

The Long Debate on POVERTY: Eight Essays on Industrialisation and the 'Condition of England', ed. R.M. Hartwell et al. (London: Institute for Economic Affairs, 1972). Includes an essay on Engels which is critical of his use of sources.

Gertrude Himmelfarb, The Idea of Poverty: England in the Early Industrial Age (London: Faber and Faber, 1984).

France

Roger Magraw, France, 1815-1914: The Bourgeois Century (London: Fontana, 1983). Chap. 8 "Integration of the Worker," pp. 285-317.

Theodore Zeldin, France, 1848-1945. Vol I "Ambition and Love" chaps on "Women" pp. 343-62 and "Workers" pp. 198-282.

Austin Gough, "French Workers and their Wives," Labour History, May 1982.

Erna O. Hellerstein, Women, Social Order and the City: Rules for French Ladies (Dissertation, University of California, Berkely, 1980). Chap. 2 "French Women and the Orderly Household."

Martine Segalen, Love and Power in the Peasant Family: Rural France in the Nineteenth Century (Oxford, 1983).

Theresa McBride, The Domestic Revolution: The Modernization of Household Service in England and France, 1820-1920 (London, 1976).

Marilyn Boxer, "Women in Industrial Homework: The Flowermakers of Paris in the Belle Epoque," French Historical Studies, Spring 1982, vol. 12, pp. 401-23.

Joan Scott and Louise Tilly, "Women's Work and the Family in Nineteenth-Century Europe," Comparative Studies in Society and History, 1975, vol. 17, pp. 36-64.

Europe

Sidney Pollard, Peaceful Conquest: The Industrialization of Europe, 1760-1970 (Oxford University Press, 1981).

The Fontana Economic History of Europe, ed. Carlo M. Cipolla. The Emergence of Industrial Societies vols. 1 & 2. (Fontana, 1976).

Art and Industrialization

Francis D. Klingender, Art and the Industrial Revolution, ed. Arthur Elton (St Albans: Paladin, 1975).

 


 

Seminar Topic VI. The Impact of the Industrial Revolution II: On War and Empire

   
Using high technology to pacify the natives (1872)  British pluck defeating the well-equipped Hun (1914?)

[See the Lecture Notes for this topic.]

A. SEMINAR READING AND DISCUSSION

1. Textbook Reading

Theodore S. Hamerow, The Birth of a New Europe: State and Society in the Nineteenth Century (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1983).

  • "The System of Warfare," pp. 363-88.

Eric Hobsbawm:

  • The Age of Revolution, 1789-1848 (1962) (New York: Mentor).
  • The Age of Capital, 1848-1875 (1975) (London: Abacus, 1997).
  • The Age of Empire, 1875-1914 (1987) (London: Abacus, 1997).

Note the monograph by Hobsbawm: Industry and Empire (Penguin, ).

2. Background Reading - Secondary Sources ("Contested Meaning")

Martin Van Crefeld, Technology and War from 2000BC to the Present (1989) (New York: The Free Press, 1991).

  • "Part III. The Age of Systems, 1830-1945", pp. 153-232.

Daniel Headrick, The Tools of Empire: Technology and European Imperialism in the Nineteenth Century (Oxford University Prfess, 1981).

William H. McNeil, The Pursuit of Power: Technology, Armed Force, and Society since AD 1000 (University of Chicago Press, 1982).

  • Chap. 6 "The Military Impact of the French Political and the British Industrial Revolutions, 1789-1840," pp. 185-222
  • Chap. 7 "The Initial Industrialization of War, 1840-84," pp. 223-61
  • Chap. 8 "Intensified Military-Industrial Interaction, 1884-1914," pp. 262-306

Jon Ellis, The Social History of the Machine Gun (London: Cresset, 1975).

3. Primary Sources ("Opposing Voices") in the Reader of Primary Sources or as an Online E-Text

Sources Relevant to the Film:

  • Alfred, Lord Tennyson "The Charge of the Light Brigade", The Oxford Book of War Poetry, ed. Jon Stallworthy (Oxford University Press, 1988), p. 115-6.An E-Text version.
  • William Howard Russell, Russell's Despatches from the Crimea, 1854-1856, ed. Nicolas Bentley (London: Deutsch, 1966).
    • Chap. 3 "Cholera", pp. 49-57.
    • "10. Balaklava," pp. 119-129.
  • Ever yours, Florence Nightingale. Selected Letters, ed. Martha Vicinus and Bea Nergaard (London: Virago, 1989). Extracts from Chap. 2 "The Crimea Years: 1854-56," pp. 83-97, 149-55.

Other Sources:

  • Helmut von Moltke, Moltke on the Art of War: Selected Writings, ed. Daniel J. Hughes (1993) (Novato, Calif.: Presidio, 1995).
    • "Untitled (1871)" pp. 102-4
    • "Railroads (1861) pp. 107-113.
    • "Telegraphs (1871-81)" pp. 113-21.
    • "Inventions (c.1859-68)" pp. 257-8.
    • "On the Nature of War" (1880) - E-Text
  • Articles from the 1910-11 or "11th" edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica (New York: Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., 1911)
    • "War. I General Principles,", vol. 28, pp. 305-11.
  • Friedrich Engels
    • "The Danger of World War, 1888," in Selected Writings, ed. W.O. Henderson (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1967), pp. 396-97
    • Essays from Marxism and the Science of War, ed. Bernard Semmel (Oxford Unviersity Press, 1981)
      • "The Force Theory" from Anti-Dühring (1878), pp. 49-57. An Online E-Text version.
      • "On Western Military Technique in Asia", pp. 216-18
      • "The Guerrilla War in France," pp. 224-26
    • "The Role of Force in History: A Study of Bismarck's Policy of Blood and Iron" (1888). E-Text only.
  • General Friedrich von Bernhardi, Germany and the Next War (New York, 1914) - extracts as E-Text.
  • Jean de Bloch, The Future of War in its Technical, Economic and Political Relations, (1899) trans. R.C. Long (Boston: Ginn & Co., 1902).
    • "I. How War Will be Waged on Land," pp. 3-36
    • "VII. The Care of the Wounded," pp. 147-59
  • Images from Jon Ellis, The Social History of the Machine Gun (London: Cresset, 1975).
    • Photograph of Hiram Maxim showing his invention to the Prince of Wales, p. 46
    • Imaginative combinations of machine guns and mounted troops
      • A Danish Hussar and Machine Gun, 1901, p. 60
      • Camel Corps and Gatling Gun, 1872, p. 89
    • A fictional depiction of a foot soldier storming a machine gun nest, p. 125

4. Film

See the handout for the film:

  • War & Empire (Crimean War) - Tony Richardson, Charge of the Light Brigade (1968) 2hrs 5 (LD/WS)

5. Questions to Keep in Mind when Reading and Watching

  • what technological advantages did the European powers have over the people they colonised in the 19th century?
  • how was new technology used in the American Civil War and/or the Franco-Prussian War and what short (or long) term impact did it have?
  • why were the campaigns of Napoleon and the writings of Clausewitz so influential during the 19thC?
  • what role did technology play in the arms race which preceded WW1?
  • why did military experts, with very few exceptions, take so long to realise the consequences of changes being brought about by the industrial revolution?
  • who first saw (predicted?) what the "war of the future" would be liked and why were they able to do what so few others were able to do?
  • is militarism an inevitable part of the industrial/capitalist system (as the Marxists argued) or a corruption of the market (as classical liberals like Spencer argued)?
  • to what extent was the British/German/French empire dependent on new technology to function?

B. TOPICS FOR WRITTEN WORK

You are required to hand in a Primary Source Exercise, a Film Analysis Exercise and a Major Essay. The major Essay is due at the end of the semester. The first exercise (either on a Primary Source or on a Film) is due in the mid-semester break. The second exercise (either on a Primary Source or on a Film) is due at the relevant Seminar in the second half of the semester. You must choose a different Seminar Topic for each of these pieces of written work, in other words there can be no doubling up of topics.

1. Primary Source Exercise

"Select one of the Primary Sources in the Reader of Primary Sources and answer the following questions: what kind of primary source is it, who wrote (or painted) it, when was it written, why was it written, what does the source tell us about the past?"

In your answer you should

  • refer to the questions concerning primary sources posed in the Guide to the Primary Source Exercises - Using Primary Sources (listed below)
  • use at least 4 secondary sources listed in the Seminar Reading Guide (in addition to the textbooks by Hamerow or Hobsbawm) for information about the author and the historical context of the primary source

2. Film Analysis Exercise

"Select one of the feature films shown in this Subject and, by using at least one of the primary sources in the Reader of Primary Sources, assess the historical accuracy of the film and account for any discrepancies you find."

In your answer you should

  • refer to the issues raised in An Introduction to the Study of Film and History (listed below)
  • use at least 1 primary source from the Reader of Primary Sources and 4 secondary sources listed in the Seminar Reading Guide (in addition to the textbooks by Hamerow or Hobsbawm) for information about the events and individuals depicted in the film, the filmmaker, and the historical context in which the film was made

3. Major Essay

  • Select one of the following technical innovations and assess its impact on either the way in which European nations fought their wars or controlled their empires:
    • the machine gun
    • the telegraph
    • the railways
    • modern chemical explosives
    • steam driven steel-hulled ships

C. ADDITIONAL RECOMMENDED READING

Please note: The full bibliography is only available online.

1. "Opposing Voices" (Primary Sources)

Articles from the 1910-11 or "11th" edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica (New York: Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., 1911)

  • "War", vol. 28, pp. 305-11.
  • "Machine Gun", vol. 17, pp. 237-49.
  • miscellaneous articles: Army, "Fortification", Navy, Arms and armour, Strategy, Cavalry, Artillery, Supply and Transport, Rifle
The Militry and the Industrial Revolution

Helmut von Moltke, Moltke on the Art of War: Selected Writings, ed. Daniel J. Hughes (1993) (Novato, Calif.: Presidio, 1995).

  • "Untitled (1871)" pp. 102-4
  • "Railroads (1861) pp. 107-113.
  • "Telegraphs (1871-81)" pp. 113-21.
  • "Inventions (c.1859-68)" pp. 257-8.

Friedrich von Berhardi, On War Today (London, 1912).

Critics and Opponents of Industrialized Warfare

Jean de Bloch, Is War Now Impossible? The Future of War in its Technical, Economic and Political Relations (London, 1899).

H.G. Wells: Journalism and Prophecy, 1893-1946, ed. W. Warren Wagar (London: The Bodley Head, 1964). "War in the Twentieth Century," pp. 24-31; "Atomic Bombs," pp. 36-38; "The War in the Air," pp. 39-42; "Decadent World," pp. 176-80.

Norman Angell, The Great Illusion: The Relation of Military Power to National Advantage (1909) (London: William Heinemann, 1913).

Herbert Spencer

  • Principles of Sociology, ed. Stanislav Andreski (Hamden, Connecticut: Archon Books, 1969). "The Militant Type of Society," "The Industrial Type of Society," pp. 499-571.
  • "Re-Barbarisation," and "Regimentation," pp. 122-41 and "Imperialism and Slavery" pp. 112-121 in Facts and Comments (London: Williams and Norgate, 1902).

Friedrich Engels

  • Selected Writings, ed. W.O. Henderson (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1967). "VI. The Military critic", pp. 337-83, 396-7.
  • Engels as Military Critic: Articles by Friedrich Engels reprinted from the Vonunteer Journal and the Manchester Guardian of the 1860s, ed. W.H. Chaloner and W.O. Henderson (Manchester University Press, 1959).
  • Anti-Dühring (1878).
  • Essays by Engels in Marxism and the Science of War, ed. Bernard Semmel (Oxford Unviersity Press, 1981).

2. "Contested Meaning" (Secondary Sources)

General

Fontana History of European War and Society, ed. Geoffrey Best.

  • Brian Bond, War and Society in Europe, 1870-1970 (London: Fontana).
  • Geoffrey Best, War and Society in Revolutionary Europe, 1770-1870 (London: Fontana, 1982).
  • V.G. Kiernan, European Empires from Conquest to Collapse, 1815-1960 (Fontana, 1982).

Paul Kennedy, The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers: Economic Change and Military Conflict from 1500 to 2000 (New York: Random House, 1987). "Strategy and Economics in the Industrial Era", especially the following chapters:

  • "4. Industrialization and the Shifting Global Balances, 1815-1885", pp. 143-93.
  • "5. The Coming of a Bipolar World and the Crisis of the 'Middle Powers': Part One, 1885-1918," pp. 194-274.

John U. Nef, Western Civilization since the Renaissance: Peace, War, Industry and the Arts (1950) (New York: Harper Torchbooks, 1963).

  • "Part Three: Industrialism and Total War, circa 1740 to circa 1950", pp. 273-416.

R.A. Buchanan, The Power of the Machine: The Impact of Technology from 1700 to the Present (1992) (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1994).

Michael Howard, The Lessons of History (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1991).

  • 4. "Empire, Race and War in pre-1914 Britain", pp. 63-80
  • 5. "The Edwardian Arms Race," pp. 81-96
  • 6. "Men Against Fire: The Doctrine of the Offensive in 1914", pp. 97-112

Michael Howard, War in European History (Oxford University Press, 1979).

  • 5. "The Wars of the Revolution" pp. 75-93
  • 6. "The Wars of the Nations," pp. 94-115
  • 7. "The Wars of the Technologists," pp. 116-35

Martin Van Crefeld, Supplying War: Logistics from Wallenstein to Patton (Cambridge University Press, 1980).

  • 3. "When Demigods Rode the Rails," pp. 75-108
  • 4. "The Wheel That Broke", pp. 109-41

War and Economic Devlopment: Essays in Memory of David Joslin, ed. J.M. Winter (Camridge University press, 1975).

Imagining the War of the Future

I.F. Clarke, Voices Prophecying War: Future Wars 1763-3749 (Oxford University Press, 1992. Second edition).

Daniel Pick, War Machine: The Rationalisation of Slaughter in the Modern Age (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993).

19thC Wars

Philip Warner, The Crimean War: A Reappraisal (London, 1972).

Agatha Ramm, "The Crimean War," in The New Cambridge Modern History,  vol. 10 "1830-70.

Gordon Craig, The Battle of Königgrätz: Prussia's Victory over Austria, 1866 (1964) (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1975).

Michael Howard, The Franco-Prussian War: The German Invasion of France, 1870-71 (1961) (New York: Collier, 1969).

Jay Luvaas, The Military Legacy of the Civil War: The European Inheritance ( Chicago University Press, 1959).

Byron Farwell, The Boer War (London: Allen Lane, 1977).

Military Stragey

Makers of Modern Strategy: From Machiavelli to the Nuclear Age, ed. Peter Paret (Princeton University Press, 1986)

  • Gunther Rothenberg, "Moltke, Schlieffen, and the Doctrine of Strategic Envelopment".

Richard D. Challener, The French Theory of the Nation in Arms, 1866-1939 (New York, 1955).

Clausewitz and Modern Strategy, ed. Michael I. Handel (London: Frank Cass, 1986).

  • Michael I. Handel, "Clausewitz in the Age of Technology," pp. 51-92.
The Arms Race and the Military-Industrial Complex

.

Militarisam

V.R. Berghahn, Militarism: The History of an International Debate, 1861-1979 (Cambridge University Press, 1984). Chap. 1 "The Debate Prior to 1914," pp. 1-30; Chap. III "The Debate on German and Japanese Militarism," pp. 49-60.

Gerhard Ritter, The Sword and the Scepter: The Problem of Militarism in Germany, trans. Heinz Norden (Coral Gables, Florida: University of Miami Press, 1969). Vol. 1 The Prussian Tradition, 1740-1890. "Introduction," pp. 5-13; Chap 8 "Moltke and Bismarck - Strategy and Policy," pp. 187-260.

Gordon A. Craig, The Politics of the Prussian Army, 1640-1945 (Oxford University Press, 1978). Chap. VI "The State within a State, 1871-1914," pp. 217-54.

Eckart Kehr, Economic Interest, Militarism, and Foreign Policy: Essays on German History, ed. Gordon A. Craig (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1977). Chap. 1 "The German Fleet in the Eighteen Nineties and the Politico-Military Dualism in the Empire," pp. 1-21.

Alfred Vagts, A History of Militarism: Civilian and Military (New York: Free Press, revised edition, 1967).

War and Technology

E.A. Pratt, The Rise of Rail Power in War and Conquest 1833-1914 (London, 1913).

J.F.C. Fuller, Armament and History (New York: Scribners, 1945).

Maurice Pearton, The Knowledgeable State: Diplomacy, War and Technology Since 1830 (London: Burnett, 1982).

Dennis Showalter, Railroads and Rifles: Technology and the Unification of Germany (1975) (Hamden, Conn.: Archon Press, 1986).

Empire and Technology

Daniel R. Headrick, The Tools of Empire: Technology and European Imperialism in the Nineteenth Century (Oxford University Prfess, 1981).

Daniel R. Headrick, The Tentacles of Progress: Technology Transfer in the Age of Imperialism, 1850-1940 (Oxford University Press, 1988).

Daniel R. Headrick, The Invisible Weapon: Telecommunications and International Politics, 1851-1945 (Oxford University Press, 1991).

Jean de Bloch

T.H.E. Travers, "Technology, Tactics and Morale: Jean de Bloch, the Boer War, and British Military Theory 1900-1914," Journal of Modern European History, 1979, vol. 51, no. 2, pp 264-86.

Florence Nightingale and the Crimean War

I have done my duty: Florence Nightingale in the Crimean War, 1854-56, ed. Sue M. Goldie (University of Iowa Press, 1987).

Ever yours, Florence Nightingale. Selected Letters, ed. Martha Vicinus and Bea Nergaard (London: Virago, 1989).

I. Bernard Cohen, "Florence Nightingale," Scientific American, March 1984, vol. 250, no. 3, pp. 98-107.

Elspeth Huxley, Florence Nightingale (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1975), Chapter 3 "Chaos at Scutari," pp. 62-89; chapter 4 "Calamity Unparalleled," pp. 92-117; capter 5 "A Twelvemonth of Dirt," pp. 120-47; Chapter 6 "The Health of the Army," pp. 150-79.

William Russell, War Correspondents and the Crimean War

Caroline Chapman, Russell of the Times: War Despatches and Diaries (London: Bell & Hyman, 1984).

William Howard Russell, Russell's Despatches from the Crimea, 1854-1856, ed. Nicolas Bentley (London: Deutsch, 1966).

P. Knightly, The First Casualty: From the Crimea to Vietnam: The War Correspondent as Hero, Propagandist, and Myth Maker (London: Harcourt Brace Yovanovich, 1975).

 


 

Seminar Topic VII. The Emancipation of Women

   
 "Votes for Women" - Joan of Arc with banner (1912) Anti-suffrage cartoon 1910 

[See the Lecture Notes for this topic.]

A. SEMINAR READING AND DISCUSSION

PLEASE NOTE: SEMINAR DEBATE TOPIC

From the perspective of a 19th century opponent or a supporter of equal rights for women , argue for or against the proposition:

  • "That women should NOT be granted legal and political equality with men."

Perhaps all the men in the tutorial could argue against the proposition and all the women for it?

1. Textbook Reading

Theodore S. Hamerow, The Birth of a New Europe (1983). Why doesn't Hamerow have a chapter on women? Why doesn't he have a listing for "women" in the index? His chapter on manhood suffrage is Chap. 11 "The Enfranchisement of the Masses".

Eric Hobsbawm

  • The Age of Revolution, 1789-1848 (1962) . Ditto for this volume of Hobsbawm.
  • The Age of Capital, 1848-1875 (1975). Ditto for this volume of Hobsbawm.
  • The Age of Empire, 1875-1914 (1987). Women finally make an appearance in the 3rd volume (1987) in chap. 8 "The New Woman".

2. Background Reading - Secondary Sources ("Contested Meaning")

Jane Rendall, The Origins of Modern Feminism: Women in Britain, France and the United States, 1780-1860 (London: Macmillan, 1985).

Karen Offen, "Liberty, Equality, and Justice for Women: The Theory and Practice of Feminism in Nineteenth-Century Europe," in Becoming Visible: Women in European History, ed. Renate Bridenthal, Claudia Koonz, Susan Stuard (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1987, 2nd edition), pp. 335-73.

S. S. Holton, Feminism and Democracy: Women's Suffrage and Reform Politics in Britain, 1897-1918 (Cambridge University Press, 1986). Chap. 1 "'Feminising democracy': the ethos of the women's-suffrage movement", pp. 9-28 and Chap. 2 "Militants and constitutionalists" pp. 29-52.

Lisa Tickner, " The Hysterical Woman and the Shrieking Sisterhood" and "The Militant Woman" in The Spectacle of Women: Imagery of the Suffrage Campaign, 1907-14 (University of Chicago Press, 1988), pp. 192-213.

3. Primary Sources ("Opposing Voices") in the Reader of Primary Sources or as an Online E-Text

  • The Debate in the British House of Commons on 20 May 1867 between John Stuart Mill and his critics concerning a proposal to extend suffrage to women republished in Women, the Family, and Freedom: The Debate in Documents, ed. Susan Groag Bell and Karen M. Offen (Stanford University Press, 1983). Vol. 1, Chap. 16 "Women and the Vote," pp. 482-517
    • John Stuart Mill (1867), pp. 482-88
    • The Debates in the House of Commons (1867), pp. 488-93
  • The documents on woman suffrage in Women, the Family, and Freedom: The Debate in Documents, ed. Susan Groag Bell and Karen M. Offen (Stanford University Press, 1983). Vol. 2, Chap. 6 "The Nation-State and Woman Suffage," pp. 221-45.
    • William E. Gladstone (1892), pp. 222-5
    • Susan Elizabeth Gay (1892), pp. 225-27
    • Militant tactics in England and their Reception
      • Carrie Chapman Catt (1908), pp. 234-36
      • Emmeline Pankhurst (1908), pp. 236-39
      • Millicent Garrett Fawcett (1912), pp. 239-43
      • Helene Lange (1913), pp. 243-45
  • Extract from Emmeline Pankhurst, My Own Story (1914) - E-Text
  • John Stuart Mill, The Subjection of Women (1869) - as an E-Text.
    • CHAPTER I
    • CHAPTER II
    • CHAPTER III
    • CHAPTER IV
  • Helen Taylor, The Claim of Englishwomen to the Suffrage Constitutionally Considered (1867) - E-Text
  • Images of the suffrage campaign from Lisa Tickner, The Spectacle of Women: Imagery of the Suffrage Campaign, 1907-14 (University of Chicago Press, 1988):

4. Film

There is no film for this topic.

5. Questions to Keep in Mind when Reading and Watching

  • what were the arguments against allowing women equal political and economic rights (i.e. equal with men)?
    • e.g. on the grounds of biology, religion, custom, political stability, economic cost, family life
  • who (what groups, classes) opposed the granting of equal rights to women?
  • what were the arguments for allowing women equal political and economic rights?
    • e.g. on the grounds of justice, political principle, demands of modernity
  • who (what groups, classes) supported the granting of equal rights to women?
  • to what extent did liberals and/or Marxists/socialists support or oppose women's suffrage?
  • in what countries was opposition to equal rights for women the greatest?
  • in what countries was opposition to equal rights for women the least?
  • what tactics were used by the Women's Suffrage movement?
  • give an example of parliamentary and/or party political agitation, and how successful was it?
  • give an example of violent protest, and how successful was it?
  • what stereotypes of women and "suffragettes" (why the diminutive ending "-ette"?) appeared in the political imagery of the suffrage campaign in Britain?
  • what images did the supporters of women's suffrage use to further their political campaign? were they successful?

B. TOPICS FOR WRITTEN WORK

You are required to hand in a Primary Source Exercise, a Film Analysis Exercise and a Major Essay. The major Essay is due at the end of the semester. The first exercise (either on a Primary Source or on a Film) is due in the mid-semester break. The second exercise (either on a Primary Source or on a Film) is due at the relevant Seminar in the second half of the semester. You must choose a different Seminar Topic for each of these pieces of written work, in other words there can be no doubling up of topics.

1. Primary Source Exercise

"Select one of the Primary Sources in the Reader of Primary Sources and answer the following questions: what kind of primary source is it, who wrote (or painted) it, when was it written, why was it written, what does the source tell us about the past?"

In your answer you should

  • refer to the questions concerning primary sources posed in the Guide to the Primary Source Exercises - Using Primary Sources (listed below)
  • use at least 4 secondary sources listed in the Seminar Reading Guide (in addition to the textbooks by Hamerow or Hobsbawm) for information about the author and the historical context of the primary source

2. Film Analysis Exercise

3. Major Essay

  • What were the strengths and weaknesses of the different strategies men and women used to campaign for equal rights for women in the nineteenth cnetury?

C. ADDITIONAL RECOMMENDED READING

Please note: The full bibliography is only available online.

1. "Opposing Voices" (Primary Sources)

Some pioneering defences of the rights of women:

  • Mary Wollstonecraft, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792) - as a plain E-Text from the Internet Modern History Sourcebook at Fordham University.
  • Mary Wollstonecraft, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792) - in an elegant version by the Project Bartleby Archive at Columbia University, New York. It has each paragraph numbered to aid scholars in citing passages from the text.

Karen M. Offen, Victorian Women: A Documentary Account of Women's Lives in Nineteenth-Century England, France and the United States (1981).

Women, the Family, and Freedom: The Debate in Documents, ed. Susan Groag Bell and Karen M. Offen (Stanford University Press, 1983). Vol. 1, 1750-1880 and Vol. 2 , 1880-1950.

  • Vol. 1 - Chap. 16 "Women and the Vote"
  • Vol. 2 - Chap. 6 "The Nation-State and Woman Suffrage"

Free and Ennobled: Source Readings in the Development of Victorian Feminism, ed. Carol Bauer and Lawrence Ritt (1983).

Émile Zola, L'Assomoir, trans. Leonard Tancock (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1985).

Images of the suffrage campaign from Lisa Tickner, The Spectacle of Women: Imagery of the Suffrage Campaign, 1907-14 (University of Chicago Press, 1988):

Advocates of Equal Rights/Suffrage

John Stuart Mill, The Subjection of Women (1869) and Harriet Taylor, The Enfranchisement of Women, ed. Kate Soper (London: Virago Press, 1983).

Selected Articles on Woman Suffrage, ed. Edith M. Pelphs (White Plains, New York: H.W. Wilson, 1916).

John Stuart Mill, "On Marriage," "Statement on Marriage," "The Subjection of Women," "The Contagious Diseases Acts," and "Appendix A,B,C" in Collected Works vol. 21, ed. J.M. Robson (University of Toronto Press).

Opponents of Equal Rights/Suffrage

Jane Lewis, Before the Vote was Won: Arguments For and Against Women's Suffrage (London: Routledge and Keagan Paul, 1987).

Brian Harrison, Separate Spheres: The Opposition to Women's Suffrage in Britain (London: Croom Helm, 1978).

2. "Contested Meaning" (Secondary Sources)

General

Becoming Visible: Women in European History, ed. Renate Bridenthal, Claudia Koonz, Susan Stuard (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1987, 2nd edition).

Bonnie S. Anderson and Judith P. Zinsser, A History of their Own: Women in Europe from Prehistory to the Present, 2 vols. (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1990).

Equal or Different: Women's Politics 1800-1914, ed. Jane Rendall (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1987).

Women's History, 1850-1945, ed. J. Purves (London: UCL Press, 1995).

Britain

Sandra Stanley Holton, Suffrage Days: Stories from the Women's Suffrage Movement (London: Routledge, 1996).

Lisa Tickner, A Spectacle of Women. Imagery of the Suffrage Campaign, 1907-14 (University of Chicago Press, 1988).

P. Thane, "Late Victorian Women" in T.R. Gourvish and A. O'Day, Later Victorian Britain, 1867-1900 (London: Macmillan Education, 1988), pp. 175-208.

S.S. Holton, "From Anti-Slavery to Suffrage Militancy. The Bright Circle, Elizabeth Cady Stanton and the British Women's Movement," in Suffrage and Beyond: International Feminist Perspectives, eds. C. Daley and M. Nolan (Auckland University Press, 1994), pp. 213-33.

S.S. Holton, '"To Educate Women into Rebellion." Elizabeth Cady Stanton and the Creation of a Transatlantic Network of Radical Suffragists," American Historical Review, 1994, vol. 99, pp. 1113-36.

France

Patrick Kay Bidelman, Pariahs Stand Up'. The Founding of the Liberal Feminist Movement in France, 1858-1889 (Westport, Connecticut, 1982).

Claire Goldberg Moses, French Feminism in the 19th Century (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1984).

Theodore Zeldin, France, 1848-1945. Vol I "Ambition and Love" chaps on "Women" pp. 343-62 and "Workers" pp. 198-282.

Austin Gough, "French Workers and their Wives," Labour History, May 1982.

Erna O. Hellerstein, Women, Social Order and the City: Rules for French Ladies (Dissertation, University of California, Berkely, 1980). Chap. 2 "French Women and the Orderly Household."

Martine Segalen, "Women in Rural Nineteenth-Century France," in Misérable et glorieuse, la femme du XIXe siècle, ed. J.-P. Aron. Translation by Ann Daughtry.

Martine Segalen, Love and Power in the Peasant Family: Rural France in the Nineteenth Century (Oxford, 1983).

Theresa McBride, The Domestic Revolution: The Modernization of Household Service in England and France, 1820-1920 (London, 1976).

Marilyn Boxer, "Women in Industrial Homework: The Flowermakers of Paris in the Belle Epoque," French Historical Studies, Spring 1982, vol. 12, pp. 401-23.

Joan Scott and Louise Tilly, "Women's Work and the Family in Nineteenth-Century Europe," Comparative Studies in Society and History, 1975, vol. 17, pp. 36-64.

The German States/Second Reich

German Women in the Nineteenth Century: A Social History, ed. John C. Fout (New York: Holmes and Meier, 1984).

Richard J. Evans, "Liberalism and Society: The Feminist Movement and Social Change," in Society and Politics in Wilhelmine Germany, ed. Richard J. Evans (New York: Barnes and Noble, 1978).

Amy Hacket, "Feminism and Liberalism in Wilhelmine Germany, 1890-1918," in Liberating Women's History: Theoretical and Critical Essays, ed. Berenice A. Carroll (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1976).

Amy Hackett, "The German Women's Movement and Suffrage, 1890-1918: A Study of National Feminism," in Modern European Social History, ed. Robert J. Bezucha (Lexington, MA: Heath, 1976).

Political Thought

Susan Muller Okin, Women in Western Political Thought (London: Virago Press, 1980).

Patricia Hughes, "The Reality versus the Ideal: J.S. Mill's Treatment of Women, Workers, and Private Property," Canadian Journal of Political Science, 1979, vol. XII, no. 3, 523-54.

Julia Annas, "Mill and the Subjection of Women," Philosophy, 1977, vol. 52.

Australia

Audrey Oldfield, Woman Suffrage in Australia: A Gift or a Struggle? (Cambridge University Press, 1992).

 


 

Seminar Topic VIII. The Boer War & the British Empire

 

"Uncivilized" Boer guerrillas in the Field 

  "Civilized" Colonial Troops: Breaker Morant and Companions

[See the Lecture Notes for this topic.]

A. SEMINAR READING AND DISCUSSION

PLEASE NOTE: SEMINAR DEBATE TOPIC

We will conduct a "mock" court martial of Harry Morant and his fellow soldiers to retry them in the light of modern historical scholarship. The Seminar will be divided into 3 groups - one to prosecute Morant, one to defend Morant, and the third to act as "jury".

  • "Did Morant and his fellow soldiers commit war crimes against Boer farmers and civilians and, if so, should they be sentenced to death?"

1. Textbook Reading

On imperialism, war, and nationalism - Theodore S. Hamerow, The Birth of a New Europe (1983): two general chapters on war and imperialism - Chap. 14 "The System of Warfare"; Chap. 15 "The Zenith of Imperialism"

Eric Hobsbawm

  • The Age of Revolution, 1789-1848 (1962): Chap. 4 "War"
  • The Age of Capital, 1848-1875 (1975): Chap. 3 "The World Unified"; Chap. 4 "Conflicts and War"; Chap. 7 "Losers"; Chap. 8 "Winners"
  • The Age of Empire, 1875-1914 (1987): Chap. 3 "The Age of Empire"; Chap. 6 "Waving Flags: Nations and Nationalism"; Chap. 13 "From Peace to War"

2. Background Reading - Secondary Sources ("Contested Meaning")

A useful one-volume survey of European imperialism: V.G. Kiernan, European Empires from Conquest to Collapse, 1815-1960 (Fontana, 1982).

On the Boer War see Thomas Pakenham, The Boer War (New York: Random House, 1994).

And the collection of essays: The South African War: The Anglo-Boer War, 1899-1902, ed. Peter Warwick (London: Longman, 1980). Especially Chap 4 by Fransjohan Pretorius "Life on Commando," pp. 103-22.

Extracts from "Editor's Commentary" to Breaker Morant and the Bushveldt Carbineers, ed. Arthur Davey (Cape Town: Van Riebeeck Society, 1987). Second Series No. 18. Pages xvii-lvi.

Fransjohan Pretorius "Life on Commando," in The South African War: The Anglo-Boer War, 1899-1902, ed. Peter Warwick (London: Longman, 1980), pp. 103-22.

Hallman B. Bryant, "'Breaker' Morant in Fact, Fiction and Film," Literature/Film Quarterly, 1987, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 138-45.

3. Primary Sources ("Opposing Voices") in the Reader of Primary Sources or as Online E-Texts

Sources Relevant to the Film:

  • 'Breaker' Morant's poem, "Butchered to Make a Dutchman's Holiday" first published in The Bulletin, April 19, 1902 republished in The Poetry of 'Breaker' Morant from the Bulletin 1891-1903, with original illustrations, ed. David McNicoll (Sydney: Golden Press, 1980), p.62.
  • Documents from Breaker Morant and the Bushveldt Carbineers, ed. Arthur Davey (Cape Town: Van Riebeeck Society, 1987). Second Series No. 18.
    • Chapter V. The Court of Inquiry, pp. 74-89.
      • No. 49 - Letter from Morant to Lenehan, 17 August 1901
      • No. 50 - Letter from Browne et al. to Hall, 4 October 1901
      • No. 51 - Memorandum from Cochrane, 7 October 1901
    • Chapter VI. The Courts-Martial and Sequel, 112-17, 124-39.
      • No. 76 Army Order No. 497, 12 Feb. 1902 (extract)
      • No. 77 Witnesses at the Courts-martial
      • No. 78 Report of Court-martial proceedings from The Times, 17 April 1902
  • Extracts from Lieut. George Witton, Scapegoats of the Empire: The True Story of Breaker Morant's Bushveldt Carbineers (Sydney: Angus and Robertson, 1907, reprinted 1982), pp. 82-85, 112-24, 131-40, 154-61.
  • Articles about the Trial and Execution of Breaker Morant in the Sydney Morning Herald 10 March - 4 April 1902

4. Film

See the handoout for Bruce Beresford, Breaker Morant (1980) 1hr 47 (DVD/WS).

5. Questions to Keep in Mind when Reading and Watching

  • why were the British fighting in South Africa in 1899-1902?
  • what kind of warfare was used by the Boers and how effective was it against the British forces?
  • why were Australians fighting with the British against the Boers?
  • what is the connection, if any, between Australian nationalism and war?
  • to what extent is Breaker Morant a typical Australian "larrikan hero"? a "scapegoat" of the British Empire? a likeable fellow who had been brutalized by war? a war criminal?
  • what is the "legend" of Breaker Morant and when did it emerge?
  • to what extent, if any, did the new Australian nationalism of the 1970s influence the depiction of the British in the new Australian cinema (and literature) of the same period?

B. TOPICS FOR WRITTEN WORK

You are required to hand in a Primary Source Exercise, a Film Analysis Exercise and a Major Essay. The major Essay is due at the end of the semester. The first exercise (either on a Primary Source or on a Film) is due in the mid-semester break. The second exercise (either on a Primary Source or on a Film) is due at the relevant Seminar in in the second half of the semester. You must choose a different Seminar Topic for each of these pieces of written work, in other words there can be no doubling up of topics.

1. Primary Source Exercise

"Select one of the Primary Sources in the Reader of Primary Sources and answer the following questions: what kind of primary source is it, who wrote (or painted) it, when was it written, why was it written, what does the source tell us about the past?"

In your answer you should

  • refer to the questions concerning primary sources posed in the Guide to the Primary Source Exercises - Using Primary Sources (listed below)
  • use at least 4 secondary sources listed in the Seminar Reading Guide (in addition to the textbooks by Hamerow or Hobsbawm) for information about the author and the historical context of the primary source

2. Film Analysis Exercise

"Select one of the feature films shown in this Subject and, by using at least one of the primary sources in the Reader of Primary Sources, assess the historical accuracy of the film and account for any discrepancies you find."

In your answer you should

  • refer to the issues raised in An Introduction to the Study of Film and History (listed below)
  • use at least 1 primary source from the Reader of Primary Sources and 4 secondary sources listed in the Seminar Reading Guide (in addition to the textbooks by Hamerow or Hobsbawm) for information about the events and individuals depicted in the film, the filmmaker, and the historical context in which the film was made

3. Major Essay

  • Were Breaker Morant and his comrades "scapegoats of the empire" or a war criminals who deserved to die?

C. ADDITIONAL RECOMMENDED READING

Please note: The full bibliography is only available online.

1. "Opposing Voices" (Primary Sources)

Morant & Friends

G.R. Witton, Scapegoats of the Empire: The True Story of Breaker Morant's Bushveldt Carbineers (Melbourne: D.W. Paterson, 1907). Reprinted 1982.

Opponents of War and Empire

Jean de Bloch, "South Africa and Europe," The North American Review, April 1902, vol. 174, no. 4, pp. 489-504.

Works by the radical liberal journalist J.A. Hobson:

  • Imperialism: A Study (1902), ed. Philip Siegelman (Ann Arbor: University Of Michigan Press, 1965).
  • "Imperialism," Contemporary Review, March 1899.
  • "Capitalism and Imperialism in South Africa," Contemporary Review, March 1899, vol. 77, pp. 1-17.
  • The War in South Africa: Its Causes and Effects (London: James Nisbet and Co., 1900, second edition). Originally published as letters in the Manchester Guardian and the Speaker.

Bernard Porter, Critics of Empire: British Radical Attitudes to Colonialism in Africa,1895-1914 (London: Macmillan, 1968).

A.P. Thornton, The Imperial Idea and its Enemies: A Study in British Power (London: Macmillan, 1959).

Supporters of War and Empire

Winston Churchill,The Boer War: London to Ladysmith via Pretoria. Ian Hamilton's March (1900)

Arthur Conan Doyle, The Great Boer War (London: Thomas Nelson and Sons, 1903). 16 editions appeared during the war. See especially pp. 11-15, 521.

Rudyard Kipling, Traffics and Discoveries (1904), ed. Hermione Lee (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1987). The short stories dealing with the Boer War include "The Captive," pp. 36-58; "A Sahib's War," pp. 87-104; "The Comprehension of Private Copper, " pp. 144-54. Kipling's view of conscription and a military version of scouting for young boys is presenterd in a story dealing with a dream about an ambush against British troops in South Africa, "The Army of a Dream," pp. 202-41.

Rudyard Kipling, Something of Myself for my Friends Known and Unknown (London: Macmillan, 1937). Chapter 6 deals with South Africa, pp. 147-75.

Lord Baden-Powell of Gilwell, Lessons from the "Varsity of Life" (London: C. Arthur Pearson, 1933). VII "The South African War," pp. 198-214.

2. "Contested Meaning" (Secondary Sources)

On Morant

Kit Denton, Closed File (Sydney: Rigby, 1983).

Breaker Morant and the Bushveldt Carbineers, ed. Arthur Davey (Cape Town: Van Riebeeck Society, 1987). Second Series No. 18.

L.M. Field, The Forgotten War: Australian Involvement in the South African Conflict of 1899-1902 (Melbourne University Press, 1979).

F.M. Cutlack, Breaker Morant: A Horseman Who Made History. With a Selection of his Bush Ballads (1962) (Sydney: Ure Smith, 1980).

Film Reviews

Hallman B. Bryant, "'Breaker' Morant in Fact, Fiction and Film," Literature/Film Quarterly, 1987, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 138-45.

On Bruce Berseford

Peter Coleman, Bruce Beresford: Instincts of the Heart (Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 1992).

Pat H. Broeske, "Beresford, Bruce" in The International Dictionary of Films and Filmmakers: Volume 2 Directors/Filmmakers, ed. Christopher Lyon (London: Macmillan, 1987), pp. 40-41.

Novels and Plays

Based on a play by Kenneth Ross, "Breaker" Morant (1978).

Kit Denton, The Breaker (1973) (Sydney: Angus and Robertson, 1980).

 


 

Seminar Topic IX. "Character fit for Empire": Honour, Athleticism, and Manliness in European Culture before WW1

 
 Tenniel's illustration of Tweedledum and Tweedledee arming themselves for a duel, for Lewis Carroll's Through the Looking Glass

A. SEMINAR READING AND DISCUSSION

1. Textbook Reading

See the textbook reading on Imperialism for the Seminar on the Boer War and the British Empire.

Theodore S. Hamerow, The Birth of a New Europe (1983): a serious omission in Hamerow's book is the absence of chapters dealing with culture (whether "high" or popular). There are indirect references in the chapters on "6. The Spread of Learning" and "9. Civic Ideologies and Social Values".

Eric Hobsbawm: there are some excellent chapters on "high culture" (art, music, literature) and the relationship between science (and technology) and European society. When it comes to "mass" or popular culture Hobsbawm limits his discussion to political activity and nationalism. His personal taste runs to 20thC jazz, on which he has written a considerable amount.

  • The Age of Revolution, 1789-1848 (1962): Chap. 14 "The Arts"; Chap. 15 "Science"
  • The Age of Capital, 1848-1875 (1975): Chap. 13 "The Bourgeois World"; Chap. 14 "Science, Religion, Ideology"; Chap. 15 "The Arts"
  • The Age of Empire, 1875-1914 (1987): Chap. 6 "Waving Flags: Nations and Nationalism"; Chap. 9 "The Arts Transformed"; Chap. 10 "Certainties Undermined: The Sciences"; Chap. 11 "Reason and Society".

2. Background Reading - Secondary Sources ("Contested Meaning")

George L. Mosse, The Image of Man: The Creation of Modern Masculinity (Oxford University Press, 1996). Mosse seeks to explain the cultural origins of 20thC Nazism by examining the emergence of aggressive, racist and militaristic notions of masculinity from the late 18thC.

  • Chap. 3 "Getting There," pp. 40-55
  • Chap. 5 "Masculinity in Crisis: The Decadence," pp. 77-106

Kevin McAleer, Dueling: The Cult of Honor in Fin-de-siècle Germany (Princeton University Press, 1994). Chap. III "Theirs is Not to Reason Why", pp. 85-118; Chap V. "Les Belles Dames Sans Merci", pp. 159-60, 178-81

Imperialism and Popular Culture, ed. John M. MacKenzie (Manchester Universitiy Press, 1986). Articles by:

  • John M. MacKenzie "Introduction", pp. 1-16; and
  • J.A. Mangan, "'The Grit of Our Forefathers': Invented Traditions, Propaganda and Imperialism," pp. 113-139

John J. MacAloon, This Great Symbol: Pierre de Coubertin and the Origins of the Modern Olympic Games (University of Chicago Press, 1984).

  • Chap. 3 "The Vision at Rugby Chapel"; Chap. 5 "The Olympic Ideal"; Chap. 8 "Conclusion: Flags and Flowers".

Ute Schwabe, ""Pierre de Coubertin" in Historical Dictionary of the Modern Olympic Movment, ed. John E. Findling and Kimberly D. Pelle (Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood, 1996), pp. 350-57.

George L. Mosse, The Nationalization of the Masses: Political Symbolism and Mass Movements in Germany from the Napoleonic Wars through the Third Reich (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1996).

  • Chap. 4 "Public Festivals: Foundations and Development," pp. 73-99
  • Chap. 6 "Organizations Take a Hand," pp. 127-36
  • Chap. 7 "The Workers' Contribution," pp. 170-72

3. Primary Sources ("Opposing Voices") in the Reader of Primary Sources

4. Film

See the handout for Istvan Szabo, Colonel Redl (1984) 2hrs 29 (LD).

5. Questions to Keep in Mind when Reading and Watching

On sport and athleticism:

  • What does James Mangan mean by "the games ethic"?
  • What moral, religious, political, racial impact did organised sport have on British and/or German youth in the late 19th and early 20th centuries?
  • Why were the modern Olympic Games established?
    • to encourage peace and international understanding?
    • to strengthen the nation's men?

On manliness and masculinity:

  • What did it mean to be "a man" in late 19thC Britain, France, and Germany?
  • What organisations emerged to develop this ideal of "manliness" and how successful were they in achieving this?
  • What kind of men were deemed necessary to run the empire or defend the fatherland?
  • What role did literature play in developing and/or spreading this ideal of masculinity?

On defending one's honour:

  • How did some men defend their honour and why did they do so?
  • What criticisms were levelled against the practice of duelling in the late 19thC?

On imperialism and popular culture:

  • What attitudes toward "empire" did middle and working class people have?
  • How were these ideas propagated?

On imperialism and high culture:

  • Assess Edward Said's claim that a concern for empire permeates much of European high culture in the 19th and 20th centuries.

On attitudes towards empire, the nation, and manliness held by the generation of men who went off to war in 1914:

  • To what extent, if any, did the group of men who were born in the late 1880s and 1890s constitute "the generation of 1914"?
  • What attitudes did they have towards "empire", the nation" (the fatherland, la patrie)?
  • What views did they have about personal honour, national honour, on "playing the game", manliness?
  • What effect, if any, did these views have on their willingness to go off to war and to endure 4 years of trench warfare (on the Western Front)?

B. TOPICS FOR WRITTEN WORK

You are required to hand in a Primary Source Exercise, a Film Analysis Exercise and a Major Essay. The major Essay is due at the end of the semester. The first exercise (either on a Primary Source or on a Film) is due in the mid-semester break. The second exercise (either on a Primary Source or on a Film) is due at the relevant Seminar in the second half of the semester. You must choose a different Seminar Topic for each of these pieces of written work, in other words there can be no doubling up of topics.

1. Primary Source Exercise

"Select one of the Primary Sources in the Reader of Primary Sources and answer the following questions: what kind of primary source is it, who wrote (or painted) it, when was it written, why was it written, what does the source tell us about the past?"

In your answer you should

  • refer to the questions concerning primary sources posed in the Guide to the Primary Source Exercises - Using Primary Sources (listed below)
  • use at least 4 secondary sources listed in the Seminar Reading Guide (in addition to the textbooks by Hamerow or Hobsbawm) for information about the author and the historical context of the primary source

2. Film Analysis Exercise

"Select one of the feature films shown in this Subject and, by using at least one of the primary sources in the Reader of Primary Sources, assess the historical accuracy of the film and account for any discrepancies you find."

In your answer you should

  • refer to the issues raised in An Introduction to the Study of Film and History (listed below)
  • use at least 1 primary source from the Reader of Primary Sources and 4 secondary sources listed in the Seminar Reading Guide (in addition to the textbooks by Hamerow or Hobsbawm) for information about the events and individuals depicted in the film, the filmmaker, and the historical context in which the film was made

3. Major Essay

  • "In the late 19th and early 20th centuries what physical and moral characteristics were thought to be required to run an Empire and how how could they be cultivated in young men? Answer with respect to one of the following nations: Britain, France, Germany, Austria."

C. ADDITIONAL RECOMMENDED READING

Please note: The full bibliography is only available online.

1. "Opposing Voices" (Primary Sources)

A Novel about Honour and Duelling

Theodor Fontane, Effi Briest (1895), trans. Douglas Parmée (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1985).

A Novel about Empire

Rudyard Kipling, Kim (1901), ed. Alan Sandison (Oxford University press, 1989).

The Ideas of the Founder of the Modern Olympic Ganes: Baron Pierre de Coubertin

Pierre de Coubertin, The Olympic Idea : Discourses and Essays, ed. Carl-Diehm-Institut, trans. John G. Dixon (Stuttgart: Hoffmann, 1967).

Pierre de Coubertin, "Does cosmopolitan life lead to international friendliness?" American Monthly Review of Reviews, vol. 17, 1898.

Baron Pierre de Coubertin et al., The Olympic Games in 776 BC to 1896 AD and The Olympic Games of 1896 (Athens and paris, 1896). Facsimile edition 1966.

2. "Contested Meaning" (Secondary Sources)

General and/or Comparative Works

George L. Mosse, The Culture of Western Europe: The 19th and 20th Centuries (3rd edition. Boulder, Col.: Westview Press, 1988).

H. Stuart Hughes, Consciousness and Society: The Reorientation of European Social Thought 1890-1930 (Frogmore, St. Albans: Paladin, 1974).

Peter Gay, The Cultivation of Hatred (New York: Norton, 1993).

Stephen Kern, The Culture of Time and Space, 1880-1918 (Harvard University Press, 1983).

Arno J. Mayer, The Persistence of the Old Regime: Europe to the Great War (New York: Pantheon books, 1981).

Imperialism and The "Games Ethic"

James A. Mangan, The Games Ethic and Imperialism: Aspects of the Diffusion of an Ideal (Harmondsworth: Viking, 1986).

James A. Mangan, Athleticism in the Victorian and Edwardian Public School: The Emergence and Consolidation of an Educational Ideology (Cambridge University Press, 1981).

Richard A. Woeltz, "Sport, Culture, and Society in Late Imperial and Weimar Germany: Some Suggestions for Further Research," Journal of Sport History, 1977, vol. 4.

Eugen Weber, "Pierre de Coubertin and the Introduction of Organized Sport in France," Journal of Contemporary History, 1970, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 3-26.

The Olympic Games of 1896

John J. MacAloon, This Great Symbol: Pierre de Coubertin and the Origins of the Modern Olympic Games (University of Chicago Press, 1984).

Historical Dictionary of the Modern Olympic Movment, ed. John E. Findling and Kimberly D. Pelle (Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood, 1996).

Christopher R. Hill, Olympic Politics : Athens to Atlanta, 1896-1996 (1992) (2nd edition 1996).

Allen Guttmann, The Olympics: A History of the Modern Games (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1992).

Richard D. Mandall, Sport: A Cultural History (New York: Columbia University Press, 1984).

Henning Eichberg, "Forward Race and the Laughter of Pygmies: On Olympic Sport" in Fin de Siècle and its Legacy, ed. Mikulas Teich and Roy Porter (Cambridge University Press, 1990), pp. 115-31.

Manliness and Maculinity

Manliness and Morality: Middle Class Masculinity in Britain and America 1800-1940, ed. J.A. Mangan and James Walvin (Manchester University Press, 1987). Articles by

  • Chap. 9 - John M. MacKenzie, "The Imperial Pioneer and Hunter and the British Masculine Stereotype in late Victorian and Edwardian Times," pp. 176-98.
  • Chap. 10 - Allen Warren, "Popular Manliness: Baden Powell, Scouting and the Development of Manly Character," pp. 199-219.

George L. Mosse, The Image of Man: The Creation of Modern Masculinity (Oxford University Press, 1996).

Robert A. Nye, Masculinity and Male Codes of Honour in Modern France (Oxford University Press, 1993).

Peter N. Stearns, Be A Man! Males in Modern Society (1979).

Norman Vance, The Sinews of the Spirit: The Ideal of Christian Manliness in Victorian Literature and Religious Thought (Cambridge University Press, 1985).

Honour and the Duel

See the website on Duels and Dueling by Tim Spalding.

Robert A. Nye, "Fencing, the Duel and Republican Manhood in the Third Republic," Journal of Contemporary History, 1990, vol. 25 .

Kevin McAleer, Dueling: The Cult of Honor in Fin-de-siècle Germany (Princeton University Press, 1994).

Donna T. Andrews, "The Code of Honour and its Critics: The Opposition to Duelling in England, 1700-1850," Social History, 1980, vol. 5, no. 2.

Edward Berenson, "The Affaire Caillaux: Honor, Masculinity, and the Duel in France in the Belle Epoque," Proceedings of the Western Society for French History (New Orleans), 1990.

Istvan Deak, "Latter Day Knights: Officer's Honor and Duelling in the Austro-Hungarian Army," Österreichische Osthefte, 1986, vol. 28.

Mark Girouard, The Return to Camelot: Chivalry and the English Gentleman (New Haven, 1981).

B. Wyatt-Brown, Southern Honor: Ethics and Behavior in the Old South (Oxford University Press, 1982).

V.G. Kiernan, The Duel in European History: Honour and the Reign of Aristocracy (Oxford University Press, 1989).

Imperialism and Popular Culture

Imperialism and Popular Culture, ed. John M. MacKenzie (Manchester Universitiy Press, 1986). Articles by:

  • John M. MacKenzie "Introduction", pp. 1-16
  • Penny Summerfield "Patriotism and Empire: Music-Hall Entertainment, 1870-1914," pp. 17-48
  • John O. Springall, "'Up Guards and At them!': British Imperialism and Popular Art, 1880-1914," pp. 49-72
  • J.S. Bratton, " Of England, Home, and Duty: The Image of England in Victorian and Edwardian Juvenile Fiction," pp. 73-93
  • J.A. Mangan, "'The Grit of Our Forefathers': Invented Traditions, Propaganda and Imperialism," pp. 113-139
  • Allen Warren, "Citizens of the Empire: Baden-Powell, Scouts and Guides, and an Imperial Ideal," pp. 232-256

Edward Said, Culture and Imperialism (London: Vintage, 1994). Chap. 2 "Consolidated Vision" - Section V "The Pleasure of Imperialism", pp. 159-96 on Kipling's Kim.

John M. MacKenzie, Propaganda and Empire: The Manipulation of British Public Opinion, 1886-1960 (Manchester University Press, 1984).

Robert Dixon, Writing the Colonial Adventure: Race, Gender and Nation in Anglo-Australian Popular Fiction, 1875-1914 (Cambridge University Press, 1995).

Nationalism

George L. Mosse, The Nationalization of the Masses: Political Symbolism and Mass Movements in Germany from the Napoleonic Wars through the Third Reich (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1996).

The Generation of 1914

Peter Parker, The Old Lie: The Great War and the Public School Ethos (London, 1987).

Robert Wohl, The Generation of 1914 (Cambridge, Mass.: 1979).

Roland N. Stromberg, Redemption through War: The Intellectuals and 1914 (Lawrence: Regents Press of Kansas, 1982).

Robert Wohl, "The Generation of 1914 and Modernism," in Modernism: Challenges and Perspectives, ed. M. Chefdov et al. (University of Illinois, 1986).

Michael C.C. Adams, The Great Adventure: Male Desire and the Coming of World War One (Indiana University Press, 1990).

Rudyard Kipling

The Age of Kipling, ed. John Ross (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1972). Eric Stokes, "Kipling's Imperialism," pp. 90-98.

Kipling's Mind and Art: Selected Critical Essays, ed. Andrew Rutherford (Stanford University Press, 1966).

Theodor Fontane

Henry Garland, The Berlin Novels of Theodor Fontane (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1980).

Alan Bance, Theodor Fontane: The Major Novels (Cambridge, 1982).

Joachim Remak, The Gentle Critic: Theodor Fontane and German Politics 1848-1898 (Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press, 1964).

Racism

George L. Mosse, Toward the Final Solution. A History of European Racism, London: Dent, 1978, pp. xi - xvi, 113-127.

Youth Movements

John Springall, Youth, Empire and Society: British Youth Movements, 1883-1940 (London, 1980).

Allen Warren, "Sir Robert Baden-Powell, the Scout Movement and Citizen Training in Great Britain, 1900-1920," English Historical Review, 1986.

Michael Rosenthal, The Character Factory: Baden-Powell and the Origin of the Boy Scout Movement (London, 1986).

 


 

Seminar Topic. Conclusion: The Importance of (19th Century) History

[See the Lecture Notes for this topic.]

A. SEMINAR READING AND DISCUSSION

1. Reading

Eric Hobsbawm, On History (London: Abacus, 1998).

Theodore S. Hamerow, Reflections on History and Historians (Madison, Wisconsin, 1987). Chap. VI "What Is the Use of History?", pp. 205-43.

David M. Hart, "The Relevance of the Humanities" (1989)

2. Questions to Keep in Mind when Reading

Consider the following for discussion:

  • what is history? (is it the "queen of the humanities"?)
    • how is it practised?
    • by whom and for whom is it practised?
    • is there such a thing as an "historical way of thinking" about the world (in other words, does an historian see the world differently from say a physicist, an economist, a theologian, a journalist, a business person)?
    • when, if at all, did people first develop a "sense of the past" (i.e. the realization that the past is "different" from the present)
    • what is the relationship between history and the other branches/disciplines of the humanities or arts?
  • what importance, use or relevance, if any, does the study of the humanities in general and the discipline of history in particular, have?
  • does history have a practical use or a moral/political purpose?
    • does (or should) the study of history make us better individuals (its self-improvement or moral function)
    • does (or should) the study of history make us better citizens or better subjects? (its nationalising or civilising function)
    • how has the study of history been used by some regimes (political, religious, educational) to defend the status quo? (its socialising function)
    • how has the study of history been used by some individuals and groups to bring about radical change? (its radicalising function)
    • how has the study of history been "misused"?
  • why do Hobsbawm and Hamerow think the study of history is important?
    • what purpose does the writing of history serve for them?
    • what does their particular way of doing history teach us about the world in which we live?

B. TOPIC FOR THE "FINAL SEMINAR EXERCISE"

Everyone should write and bring to their Seminar a 500 word Seminar Exercise on the following topic:

  • According to Hobsbawm or Hamerow, what event, person, idea or historical process most changed 19th century Europe? Do you agree with their interpretation?

C. ADDITIONAL RECOMMENDED READING

Please note: The full bibliography is only available online.

Howard Zinn, The Politics of History (2nd edition. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1990). Chap. 3 "What is Radical History?", pp. 35-55.

David Lowenthal, The Past is a Foreign Country (Cambridge University Press, 1985).

The Vital Past: Writing on the Uses of History, ed. Stephen Vaughn (Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press, 1985).

Bernard Bailyn

G.P. Gooch, History and Historians in the Nineteenth Century (Boston: Beacon Press, 1968).

G.R. Elton, The Practice of History (London: Methuen, 1967).

W.K. Hancock, Attempting History (Canberra: ANU, 1969).

Marc Bloch, The Historian's Craft, trans. Peter Putnam (New York: Vintage, 1964).

J.H. Hexter, The History Primer (New York: Basic, 1971).

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David H. Fischer, Historians' Fallacies: Toward a Logic of Historical Thought (New York: Harper & Row, 1970).

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