The Digital Library of Liberty & Power

RECENT ADDITIONS IN L'AN V (2024)

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[Updated: 12 July, 2024]

Some quick links to recent/ongoing projects:

ADDITIONS IN 2024 / L'AN V

JULY 2024

Papers I am working on:

I have been revising, updating, and reformatting some of my papers and essays. So far these ones have received the treatment:

On Frédéric Bastiat:

  1. Bastiat's Rhetoric of Liberty: The Use of Language and Literature in his Economic Writings” (2011, 2015, 2024)
  2. On Ricochets, Hidden Channels, and Negative Multipliers: Bastiat on calculating the Economic Costs of ‘The Unseen’ ” (2013, 2024)
  3. Negative Railways, Turtle Soup, talking Pencils, and House owning Dogs: ‘The French Connection’ and the Popularization of Economics from Say to Jasay" (2014, 2024)
  4. Some Thoughts on an ‘Austrian Theory of Film’: Ideas and Human Action in a Film about Frédéric Bastiat” (2019, 2024)
  5. Bastiat's Theory of Harmony and Disharmony: An Intellectual History” (2019, 2023)
  6. Frédéric Bastiat's Economic Harmonies: A Reassessment after 170 Years” (2019, 2024)
  7. "Vocabulary Clusters in the Thought of Frédéric Bastiat" (2022, 2024)
  8. Bastiat on the Seen and The Unseen: An Intellectual History” (2022, 2024)
  9. "Frédéric Bastiat on Plunder, Class, and the State" (2024)

On Gustave de Molinari:

  1. Gustave de Molinari and the Seven Musketeers of French Political Economy in the 1840s" (2015, 2023)
  2. The Struggle Against Protectionism, Socialism, And The Bureaucratic State: The Economic Thought Of Gustave De Molinari, 1845-1855” (2016, 2024)
  3. Gustave de Molinari (1819-1912): A Survey of the Life and Work of an “Économiste Dure” (a Hard-Core Economist)” (2018, 2024)
  4. Was Molinari a true Anarcho-Capitalist?: An Intellectual History of the Private and Competitive Production of Security” (2019, 2024)

On French Liberalism in general:

  1. "Frédéric Passy and ‘The School of Liberty’ (April, 1890)" (2017, 2024)
  2. "The Paris School of Liberal Political Economy, 1803-1853" (2022, 2023)
  3. J.B. Say and the Transformation of Restoration French Liberalism” (2021, 2024)

On other topics:

  1. "Entrepreneurs, Investors, and Scribblers: An Austrian Analysis of the Structure of Production and Distribution of Ideas" (2015, 2024)
  2. On The Spread of Liberal Ideas - Some First Thoughts" (2015, 2024).
  3. Plunderers, Parasites, and Plutocrats: Some Reflections on the Rise and Fall and Rise and Fall of Classical Liberal Class Analysis” (2018, 2023)
  4. The Prospects for Liberty: Some Thoughts on Goals, Threats, and Strategies” (August, 2022, 2024)

Additions to the Library:

  • Leveller ideology had penetrated the New Model Army which can be seen in the debate among the Officers held in Putney, London in October and November 1647, the so-called "Putney Debates: in enhanced HTML; and eBook HTML, PDF, and ePub. Colonel Rainborow expressed this clearly when he said: "I thinke that the poorest hee that is in England hath a life to live as the greatest hee".

Other Books this Month

The Putney Debates (1647)

Authors this Month

 

New eBooks in the Guillaumin Collection - [ToC]

 

 

JUNE 2024

Papers I am working on:

  1. [to come]

Additions to the Library:

Other Books this Month

Authors this Month

Gaetano Mosca (1858–1941)

François-Marie Arouet
(“Voltaire”) (1694-1778)

Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712–1778)

Étienne Bonnot de Condillac
(1714-1780)

New eBooks in the Guillaumin Collection - [ToC]

   

 

MAY 2024

Papers I am working on:

  1. [to come]

Additions to the Library:

   

Authors

William Graham Sumner
(1840-1910)

Richard Cobden
(1804-1865)

Frederick Douglass
(1818-1895)

Percy Bysshe Shelley
(1792-1822)

Gustave de Beaumont
(1802-1866)

Étienne Bonnot de Condillac
(1714-1780)

Gustave de Molinari
(1819-1912)

 

New eBooks in the Guillaumin Collection - [ToC]

APRIL 2024

Papers I am working on:

  1. "The Idea of "Ceteris paribus" or "Toutes choses d'ailleurs égales" (all other things being equal) in the Thought of J.S. Mill and Frédéric Bastiat"

Additions to the Library:

  • In the four years between 1720 and 1723 the English liberal journalists and historians John Trenchard (1662-1723) and Thomas Gordon (1691-1750) wrote nearly an article a week exposing the attacks on liberty by what they called the "Church power" and the "Civil power". They did this firstly under the name of "The Independent Whig" and then "Cato". The two men are commonly regarded as being leading exponents of the 18th century "Commonwealthman" tradition which defended Lockean notions of self-propriety (self-ownership), naural rights, and the consent of the governed to early 18th century Britain. There were a total of 198 such articles in the two sets of essays. I have put online the collected essays of both "The Indendent Whig" (1720) and "Cato's Letters" (1721-23). See the sortable table of contents of these articles.
  • some new texts and upgrades of works (20 items) by the authors of Cato's Letters (1721-23), John Trenchard (1662-1723) and Thomas Gordon (1691-1750):
    • upgraded - John Trenchard and Thomas Gordon, Cato's Letters (1721-23): we have used the 4 volume 6th ed. of 1755: "enhanced HTML of vol1, vol2, vol3, vol4, "4vols-in-1" and there is a new sortable table of the collected Letters.
    • new - John Trenchard and Thomas Gordon, The Independent Whig 4 vols. (1720-1747). There were at least 8 editions of a group of essays written over a period of 27 years which made up the writings of "The Independent Whig". It began as several occasional pieces before becoming a weekly paper in 1720. These 54 essays were published as a collection twice in 1721 and 1722; another volume of 19 undated pieces was published as part of the 6th edition in 1735; a 4th volume containing 32 essays was published as part of the 8th edition (?) in 1747; an American edition which published all 4 volumes in 1 appeared in 1816. We have also followed the American practice and combined all 4 volumes into one.
      • occasional pieces by Gordon:
        • The Character of an Independent Whig (1719) [facs. PDF]; reprinted in A Collection of Tracts (1751), vol. 1, pp. 311-34 [HTML]
        • The Creed of an Independent Whig (1720) [facs. PDF]; reprinted in A Collection of Tracts (1751), vol. 2, pp. 370-85 [HTML]
        • Considerations offered upon the approaching Peace (1720) [facs. PDF]; reprinted in A Collection of Tracts (1751), vol. 1, pp. 268-83 [HTML]
        • Priestianity (1720) [facs. PDF];reprinted in A Collection of Tracts (1751), vol. 2, pp. 386-416 [HTML]
        • Three Political Letters concerning Liberty and the Constitution (1721) [facs. PDF];
        • A Supplemental Letter concerning Liberty and the Constitution (1721) [facs. PDF]
      • a weekly paper (1720) [facs. PDF]
      • 1st edition of the first 54 essays in 1 vol. (1721) [facs. PDF]
      • 2nd edition of the first 54 essays in 1 vol. (1722) [facs. PDF]
      • a reprint of the original 54 articles in 2 vols (we have used the 7th ed. of 1743) in facs. PDF [vol1 and vol2] and enhanced HTML [vol1 and vol2]; and eBook HTML [vol1 and vol2], PDF [vol1 and vol2], and ePub [vol1 and vol2]
      • a 3rd volume of 19 undated pieces appeared in the 6th edition of 1735 (we have used the 7th ed. of 1741) in facs. PDF and enhanced HTML; in eBook HTML, PDF, and ePub
      • a 4th volume of 32 essays in the 8th edition (?) (1747) in facs. PDF and enhanced HTML; in eBook HTML, PDF, and ePub
      • an American edition which published all 4 volumes in 1 (1816) in facs. PDF
      • my version of all "4 vols. in 1" in enhanced HTML; in eBook HTML, PDF, and ePub
    • new - Thomas Gordon, A Discourse of Standing Armies (1722) in facs. PDF and enhanced HTML; eBook HTML, PDF, and ePub
    • upgraded - Thomas Gordon, The Works of Tacitus, 4 vols. (1737) with his "Political Discourses upon Tacitus" in facs. PDF [vol1 and vol3] and enhanced HTML; eBook PDF, HTML, and ePub
    • upgraded - Thomas Gordon, The Works of Sallust (1744) with his "Political Discourses upon Sallust" in facs. PDF [entire vol. or just the Discourses] and enhanced HTML [entire vol. or just the Discourses]; eBook HTML [whole book or just the Discourses], PDF [whole book or just the Discourses], and ePub [whole book or just the Discourses]
    • upgraded - my edition of the combined Political Discourses: Thomas Gordon, Tyranny, Empire, War, and Corruption: The Political Discourses on Tacitus and Sallust (1728-1744) (2021) in enhanced HTML; eBook HTML, PDF, and ePub
    • upgraded - Thomas Gordon, An Essay on Government (1747) in facs. PDF and enhanced HTML; eBook HTML, PDF, and ePub
    • new - John Trenchard and Thomas Gordon, A Collection of Tracts, 2 vols. (1751) [40 tracts] in facs. PDF [vol1 and vol2] and enhanced HTML [vol1 and vol2 and 2vols-in-1] and a sortable table of contents of the two volumes; eBook HTML [vol1 and vol2 and 2-vols-in-1], PDF [vol1 and vol2 and 2-vols-in-1], and ePub [vol1 and vol2 and 2-vols-in-1]
  • Ludwig von Mises' "PhD" from 1902, which is a work of economic history, namely the emancipation of the serfs in Galizia (1772-1848): Die Entwicklung des Gutsherrlich-Bäuerlichen Verhältnisses in Galizien (1772-1848) (1902) in facs. PDF and enhanced HTML; eBook HTML, PDF, and ePub
  • an updated version of Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792-1822), A Philosophical View of Reform (1820), which was not published in his lifetime due to its radical content: in facs. PDF and enhanced HTML; eBook HTML, PDF, and ePub
  • the US Senator from South Carolina, John C. Calhoun (1782–1850), wrote a perceptive analysis of the conflict within political systems betwen the "net tax-payers" and the "net tax-consumers": A Disquisition on Government and A Discourse on the Constitution and Government of the United States (1851) in facs. PDF and enhanced HTML; eBook HTML, PDF, and ePub
  • the first professor of political economy at the University of Melbourne (founded 1853) was William Edward Hearn (1826-1888) who was influenced by the ideas of Frédédic Bastiat. I have updated the following work: Plutology or the Theory of the Efforts to Satisfy Human Wants (1864) - facs. PDF and enhanced HTML; eBook HTML, PDF, ePub
    • I wonder if we will ever get a "William Hearn Chair of Political Economy" at the University of Melbourne?
  • another work by John Stuart Mill (1806-1873): Considerations on Representative Government (1861):
  • an important work by the Austrian sociologist Georg Simmel (1858–1918) on "Philosophie des Geldes" (The Philosophy of Money) (1900, 1907):

Authors

Georg Simmel (1858–1918)

John Stuart Mill (1806-1873)

William Edward Hearn
(1826-1888)

John C. Calhoun (1782–1850)

Percy Bysshe Shelley
(1792-1822)

Ludwig von Mises
(1881-1973)

   

New eBooks in the Gullaumin Collection - [ToC]

MARCH 2024

 

Additions to the Library:

  • an updated version of a work by another founder of the Austrian school, Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk (1851-1914). Here is his devastating critique of Marx: "Zum Abschluss des Marxschen Systems" (On the End/Conclusion of the Marxist System (of thought)) (1896) in facs. PDF and enhanced HTML; eBook HTML, PDF, and ePub
  • One of the "founding fathers" of the Austrian school was Carl Menger (1841-1921). We have revised editions of two of his works:
    1. Grundsätze der Volkswirthschaftslehre (Principles of Economics) (1871) in facs. PDF and enhanced HTML; and eBook HTML, PDF, and ePub
    2. Untersuchungen über die Methode der Socialwissenschaften und der politischen Oekonomie insbesondere (An Investigation into the Method of the Social Sciences, with particular reference to Economics) (1883) in facs. PDF and enhanced HTML; and eBook HTML, PDF, and ePub
  • Ludwig Mises (he dropped the "von" for this book) wrote an assessment of the state of the world immediately following the disasters of the World War and the Bolshevik revolution: Nation, Staat und Wirtschaft. Beiträge zur Politik und Geschichte der Zeit (Nation, State, and Economy: Articles on the Politics and History of the Present Time) (1919); in facs. PDF and enhanced HTML; eBook HTML, PDF, and ePub
    • Mises' book should be contrasted with the work of his contemporary J.M. Keynes (1883-1946), The Economic Consequences of the Peace (1919).
  • I have upgraded the main "Author Page" with a new layout and a sortable table of their works, of the following individuals:
  • Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1762-1814) had a radical and liberal phase (1792-93) during which he defended the right of revolution against oppressive regimes (such as the French revoltuion) in quite Lockean terms. Later he defended protectionism and national development policies which became very influential in the German speaking world. I have added two essays on the former and revised one of the latter:
    • a defence of freedom of speech: Zurückforderung der Denkfreiheit von den Fürsten Europens, die sie bisher unterdrückten (Reclaiming the Freedom of Thought from the Princes of Europe who have until now repressed it) (1793): in enhanced HTML and facs. PDF, and eBook HTML, PDF, and ePub
    • a defence of the right to rebel against an oppressive state: Beitrag zur Berichtigung der Urteile des Publikums über die französische Revolution. Zur Beurteilung ihrer Rechtmässigkeit (A Contribution to Correcting the Public's Criticisms of the French Revolution: An Assessment of their Legitimacy) (1793): in enhanced HTML and facs. PDF, and eBook HTML, PDF, and ePub
    • a defence of notd only of protectionism but also an early attempt to outline what a fully "planned" economy might look like: Der geschlossene Handelsstaat (The Closed Trading State) (1800): revised version in enhanced HTML and facs. PDF
  • John Locke (1632–1704) published three essays on "Toleration" (of different religious beliefs) between 1689 and 1692, and wrote some other pieces which were discovered after his death and which appeared in his posthumously published collected works. I have edited the three published pieces but the state of the original HTML version of the texts leaves a lot to be desired (Oxford Text Archive and the University of Michigan library). For example, the "Third Letter" (1692) has 988 "gaps" or letters and words which the coders could not or would not decipher. Most of these "gaps" are obvious from the context but they were unwilling to make an educated guess of what they might be. The facsimile PDFs are also of poor quality. With some frustration I am putting these texts online "as is" for the lack of an alternative. Someone of Locke's stature deserves better. The texts are:
  • It should also be noted that the great 18th century libertarian bookseller and publisher Thomas Hollis (1720–1774) published his own edition of Locke's Two Treatises of Government (1764) and the collected Letters on Toleration (1764) for distribution in the North American colonies. Both volumes included the lovely engraving Hollis had made. I have the former in various formats and the latter only in facs. PDF.
    • 1. Two Treatises of Government (1764) now updated in enhanced HTML and facs. PDF (B&W and colour);
    • 2. Letters concerning Toleration (1765) only in facs. PDF; it includes the Latin original of the First Letter "Epistola de Tolerantia" as well as a "Fourth Letter".
  • The 1824 12th edition of The Works of Locke is available in good HTML, volume 5 of which contains the collected "Letters on Toleration". It is here in enhanced HTML and facs. PDF.
 

[Hollis's engraving]
[larger image]

[Andrew Marvell]
[larger image]

[Algenon Sidney]
[larger image: left facing, right facing]

[John Milton]
[larger image: young Milton, mature Milton, blind Milton ]

Johann Gottlieb Fichte
(1762-1814)

Ludwig von Mises
(1881-1973)

Carl Menger (1841-1921)

Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk
(1851-1914)

New eBooks in the Gullaumin Collection - [ToC]

     

FEBRUARY 2024

Additions to the Library:

  • Jeremy Bentham, The Book of Fallacies (1824) in enhanced HTML and facs, PDF: eBook HTML, PDF, and ePub. The first edition was published in French and only later appeared in English. This book is not well known but it is an important demolition job on how politicians and bureaucrats deceive the people in order to stay in power, legitimize their rule, and protect their vested interests. He has a deep understanding of how politics works, with his discussions of the constant struggle between “The Ins” vs. “The Outs” to win political office, the “sinister interests” of the ruling elites and their allies, and how easily the public is fooled into accepting what is going on. Bastiat (and Molinari) quoted Bentham and probably knew this work as it was first published in French. Bastiat might have been inspired by it to write his magnificent series of “Sophismes” which are quite similar to Bentham’s Fallacies.
  • Volume 1 of The Clarke Papers. Selections from the Papers of William Clarke, Secretary to the Council of the Army, 1647-1649 (1891), which contains the minutes of the Putney Debates which were held between 28 October - 11 November 1647 in a church in Putney, London: enhanced HTML and facs. PDF.
  • Ludwig von Mises, Nationalökonomie: Theorie des Handlens und Wirtschaftens (1940). Before there was the theory of "human action" (1949) there was the theory of "Handlen und Wirtschaften" (trading and economizing) (1940). The Mises Institute is commemorating the 75th anniversary of the publication of the former with a "Human Action Conference" 16-18 May. I am doing my bit by publishing online the latter. Note that the Mises Institute also publishers the 1949 edition of HA in various formats. My edition of Nationalökonomie in enhanced HTML and facs. PDF; eBook HTML, PDF, and ePub.

Note on the Putney Debates

  • The "Putney Debates" (28 October - 11 November 1647) were held in a church in Putney, London which involved officers of the New Model Army, "agitators" (representatives of other army units), and some civilians to discuss
    • what demands the Army would make to Parliament regarding the payment of arrears of pay, indemnity for actions taken by individual soldiers during the war (such as taking horses from civilans (punishable by death in normal courts), and
    • changes in the form of government and electoral representation which they wanted to see enacted. The debate was heavily inlfluenced by Leveller ideas which were advocated by Edward Sexby, Colonel Rainborow, John Wildman, Col. Lilburne, and Coil. Overton.
  • The culmination of the events of 1647 were two important documents:
  • The radical Levellers John Wildman and John Lilburne believed they had been betrayed by Cromwell and other more conservative senior officiers whom they denounced as "serpents" and jugglers" in
  • The key events and documents of this momentous year are the following:
    • Feb. and March: Parliament decides to drastically cut the size of the Army in England and to send thousands to fight in Ireland
    • 15-16 May: Members of the Army meet in Saffron Waldon to discuss their grievances (minutes of meetings in the Clarke Papers)
    • 18 May: Parliament decides to immediately disband the New Model Army
    • 2 June: in response, the officer ("Cornet") George Joyce takes King Charles away from the custody of Parliament and takes him to Gen. Fairfax's HQ south of Cambridge, to use as a bargaining chip in negotiations
    • 4-5 June: the Army meets at Kentford Heath where the regiments agree to the petition "A Solemne Engagement of the Army " (5 June, 1647) which was followed soon afterwards by another petition to Parliament "A Declaration of the Army" (14 June 1647)
    • 16-17 July: the General Council of the Army meets at Reading to discuss a list of demands called "The Heads of the Proposals offered by the Army" which is published on 28 July
    • August: a mob attempts to take control of Parliament and the House of Lords on 26 July prompting the Army to occupy London (4-7 August); 24 Aug. the King is moved to Hampton Court; and the Army moves its HQ to Putney.
    • 9 Sept.: the first meeting of the General Council of the Army meets in Putney Church.
    • Oct.: the General Council discusses a document possibly written by John Wildman, "The Case of the Armie Truly stated" (15 October 1647); and then "The First Agreement of the People" (published 3 Nov. 1647) the full title of which was "An Agreement of the People for a firme and present Peace, upon grounds of common-right and freedome".
    • 28 Oct. - 11 Nov.: The Putney Debates take place (in the Clarke Papers)
    • 3 Nov.: "The First Agreement of the People" is published; the full title of which was "An Agreement of the People for a firme and present Peace, upon grounds of common-right and freedome"
    • 11 Nov.: the King escapes from Hampton Court
    • 17 Nov.: the Army leaves Putney
    • 23 Nov.: "The Petition of November" (23 Nov. 1647) is presented to the Parliament
    • 30 Dec.: John Wildman's (with William Walwyn) harsh criticism of the compromises many in the Army made (such as Cromwell and Ireton) following the Putney Debates in "Putney Projects. Or the Old Serpent in a new Forme" (30 December 1647). This disappointment for the radical Levellers had been foreseen by Lilburne in late September in The Juglers discovered.
  • see the full list of Leveller Tracts and Pamphlets - 144 are online

Ludwig von Mises (1881-1973)

Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832)

New eBooks in the Gullaumin Collection - [ToC]

JANUARY 2024

Additions to the Library:

   

James Harrington (1611–1677)

Benjamin Constant (1767-1830)

New eBooks in the Gullaumin Collection - [ToC]