Anglo-American Classical Liberal Thought

[Updated: 13 December, 2023]


English / Scottish Classical Liberalism


Note: I include the "proto-liberal" Levellers of the 1640s in a separate section.

Recent Additions

  • One of the truly great books of liberty is John Locke's Two Treatises of Government (1690). I now have the 1st edition of 1690 online [in HTML and facs. PDF] to add to the 1764 Hollis edition which has a beautiful etching of John Locke "the hero of liberty". The Hollis edition was widely circulated in the American colonies on the eve of the Revolution, thus spreading Lockean ideas of property rights, the consent of the governed, and the right to overthrow tyrannical governments.
  • I have revised and updated a work I first put online in December 2020: Algernon Sidney (1622-1683), Discourses concerning Government (1698) which now has all of its footnotes, and the margin notes have been reformatted.
  • Herbert Spencer, The Principles of Sociology, in Three Volumes (1898 authorized third edition) - vol. 1 [standard HTML, facs. PDF]; vol. 2 [standard HTML, facs. PDF]; vol. 3 [standard HTML, facs. PDF]. See also the combined tables of contents of the three volumes.
  • I have combined all three of Spencer's Principles into one very large volume ("3 volumes in 1" at 5.6 MB) in order to facilitate key word searches across the set. Both these works use my new eBook style sheet for better formatting of the text
  • for the eBook versions of Spencer's Principles, see:
  • I have added the first edition (1798) of Thomas Malthus, An Essay on the Principle of Population, as it affects the future Improvement of Society [HTML and facs. PDF].
  • This was an extended response to the more optimistic essays by the radical individualist William Godwin (1756-1836) in his The Enquirer. Reflections On Education, Manners, And Literature (1797) [HTML (to come) and facs. PDF].
  • The conversation continued in later enlarged editions of Malthus’s work in 1817 (5th ed.) and 1826 (6th ed.) - the latter in HTML (vol.1 and vol. 2) and facs. PDF (vol.1 and vol. 2), and
  • a lengthy reply by Godwin in 1820: Of Population. An Enquiry concerning the Power of Increase in the Numbers of Mankind [HTML and facs. PDF].
  • I have revised and reformatted the important work on property rights: Thomas Hodgskin, The Natural and Artificial Right to Property Contrasted (1832) [HTML]. I have added the original page numbers [in square brackets] and placed the footnotes at the end of the file. I have also created an eBook version which is formatted slightly differently. It can be read as an HTML file or a text-based PDF (A4 size page).
  • the Scottish moral philosopher and teacher of Adam Smith, Francis Hutcheson (1694–1746), wrote a widely read and influential work on natural rights Inquiry into the Original of Our Ideas of Beauty and Virtue (1725). Note in particular the final section on "alienable" and "unalienable" rights which influenced Thomas Jefferson's thinking on this: “Sect. VII. A Deduction of some complex moral Ideas, viz. of Obligation, and Right, Perfect, Imperfect, and External; Alienable and Unalienable from this moral Sense” in TREATISE II. An Inquiry concerning Mortal Good and Evil. [HTML and facs. PDF].
  • the work of the English political and legal theorist Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) is notoriously hard to read because of his convoluted and pedantic style of writing, but hidden away in the verbiage, sometimes  embedded in footnotes to footnotes, are gems of radical liberal insight, as in this neglected piece Plan of Parliamentary Reform: in the form of a Catechism (1817). In typical fashion the "introduction" is longer (at over 330 pages) than the main piece (at 52 pages) but almost lost amongst the jargon are some very insightful observations about how "the ruling few" use the corrupt parliamentary system to rule "the subject many". [HTML and facs. PDF]
  • Bentham identified one important way the "ruling few" were able to control the tax-paying "subject-many" and get them to submit to political authority was the use of "political fallacies", by which he meant false, "fallacious", and sophistical arguments. In The Book of Fallacies (1824) [HTML and facs. PDF] he discusses the following kinds of "fallacies" (or in modern terminology "fear, uncertainty, and doubt"):
    • fallacies of authority, the subject of which is authority in various shapes, and the object to repress all exercise of the reasoning faculty.
    • fallacies of danger, the subject-matter of which is danger in various shapes, and the object to repress discussion altogether, by exciting alarm.
    • fallacies of delay, the subject-matter of which is delay in various shapes—and the object, to postpone discussion, with a view of eluding it.
    • fallacies of confusion, the object of which is, to perplex, when discussion can no longer be avoided.
  • the English theologian and philosopher William Wollaston (1659-1724) wrote a secular (deist) defence of natural rights in The Religion of Nature delineated (1722) which went through many editions in the 18thC. His Lockean theory of property rights is a powerful one much admired by the contemporary libertarian philosopher George Smith. See especially section "VI. Truths Respecting Mankind in General, Antecedent to All Human Laws". [HTML and facs. PDF]
  • another radical Whig was the legal theorist and Member of Parliament James Mackintosh (1765–1832)He defended natural rights and the French Revolution which placed him in opposition to the "establishment Whigs" like Edmund Burke.
    • Vindiciæ Gallicæ: A Defence of the French Revolution and its English admirers against the accusations of the Right Hon. Edmund Burke (1791) - [facs. PDF of the 1792 ed; HTML from an 1871 ed.]]
    • A Discourse on the Study of the Law of Nature and Nations (1799) - [facs. PDF of the 2nd ed. of 1799; HTML from the 1828 ed.]
  • several works by the radical Irish Whig and freethinker John Toland (1670-1722) who opposed the corruption within the British Parliament and state (using a theory of "interests" and "partys" which is a form of classical liberal class analysis), the idea of standing armies, and edited the works of some of the leading republicans of the Civil War and Revolution period, such as James Harrington, Algernon Sidney, Edmund Ludlow, and John Milton.
    • The Danger of Mercenary Parliaments (1698) [HTML and facs. PDF]
    • The Art of Governing by Partys (1701) [HTML and facs. PDF]
    • The State-Anatomy of Great Britain. Containing A Particular Account of its several Interests and Parties (1717) [facs. PDF]
    • Hypatia (1753) [facs. PDF] - his account of the female Greek philosopher who was murdered by a Christian mob in the city of Alexandria in 415 AD. This was the subject of Alejandro Amenábar's film Agora (2009) nwith Rachel Weisz as Hypatia.
  • a collection of essays by "Cato", the pseudonym of two English Commonwealthmen, John Trenchard (1662-1723) and Thomas Gordon (c. 1691–1750), who used the ideas of John Locke to expose the corruption and injustices of the British state in the 1720s and which in turn was avidly read in the North American colonies in the decades prior to the Revolution. Cato's Letters as they were known went through 6 editions. The 144 Letters make up a veritable treatise of political theory and analysis of British institutions. We have online the 6th edition of 1755 in HTML and Facs. PDF [vol. 1 | vol. 2 | vol. 3 | vol. 4 as well as the first edtion of 1723-24.
  • after Trenchard died Thomas Gordon turned to using his translations of the Roman historians Sallust (86 – c. 35 BC) and Tacitus (c. AD 56 – c.120) to indirectly criticise the corruption and tyranny of the British government and the Empire. He wrote lengthy "political discourses" as prefaces to his translations which we have comibined into one collection Tyranny, Empire, War, and Corruption: The Political Discourses on Tacitus and Sallust (1728-1744) [HTML]. For the originals see The Works of Sallust (1744) [facs. PDF and HTML] and The Worls of Tacitus (1728, 1737) [facs. PDF and HTML].
  • The battle of the "hyphenated liberalisms": in the late 19th century the "radical", individualist, free market liberalism of thinkers like Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) was increasingly replaced by a "new," "social," interventionist form of liberalism espoused by people like Thomas Hill Green (1836-1882) at Oxford University. One could argue that this "new" liberalism was not a form of liberalism at all, but to borrow Hayek's distinction made in another context, "false liberalism." See the following by Green:
    • The Principles of Political Obligation (1879-80) [HTML and facs. PDF]
    • “On the Different Senses of ‘Freedom’ as Applied to Will and the Moral Progress of Man” (1879) [HTML and facs. PDF]
    • "Liberal Legislation and Freedom of Contract” (1881) [HTML and facs. PDF]
  • the English radical individualist and advocate of "voluntaryism" Auberon Herbert (1838-1906) presented some of the most eloquent visions of what a free society might look like and the moral reasons for rejecting state compulsion in all its forms, in:
    • The Right and Wrong of Compulsion by the State: A Statement of the Moral Principles of the Party of Individual Liberty (1885) [HTML and facs. PDF]
    • “The Ethics of Dynamite,” Contemporary Review (May 1894) [HTML and facs, PDF]
    • The Principles of Voluntaryism and Free Life (1897) [HTML and facs. PDF]
    • The Voluntaryist Creed and A Plea For Voluntaryism (1908) [HTML and facs. PDF]
  • Burke's attack on the principles of the French Revolution was quickly responded to by Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797) who wrote not one but two "Vindications" - one vindicating the rights of men (1790) [HTML] and the other extending her response to include the rights of women (1792) [HTML].
  • A youthful radical indiscretion or an attempt at satire of an opposing view? The 26 year old Edmund Burke (1729-1797) may have made the same mistake as the 20-something Étienne de la Boétie (1530-1563) in his Vindication of Natural Society (1756) in which he, perhaps too cleverly, criticises government or "artificial society" and pushes "logic" to an "unacceptable" extreme (i.e. unacceptable to the ruling elites who might employ him later). We have three editions of this work to help you make up your own mind: 1756, 1757, and 1858 [HTML]. Is this an example of the "battle of the Prefaces"?
  • the French Revolution exposed a large rift within the liberal tradition, with conservative "aristocratic" liberals like Edmund Burke (1729-1797) supporting free trade and the American Revolution but not the French Revolution, and radical democratic liberals supporting the violent overthrow of despotic regimes like the French monarchy but not the violent and anti-liberal Jacobin regime. Burke's major writings opposing the French Revolution are Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790) [HTML} and the Letters on a Regicide Peace (1795) [HTML]. Thomas Paine's immediate response to defend the revolution and the ideas of natural rights which justified it was two pamphlets Rights of Man Parts I and II (1791, 1792) [HTML]
  • a speech given at Oxford in 1906 and a statement of the "voluntaryist creed" by the English political theorist Auberon Herbert (1838-1906). The latter is one of the most eloquent defences of liberty and the non-aggression principle (“voluntarism”) ever penned. His "creed" can be summarised as the use State force only to protect ourselves against those who would employ force or fraud; and to end every form of compulsory taxation and replace it with “a system of voluntary giving”. The Voluntaryist Creed (1908) in HTML and facs. PDF
  • there was a group of four radical English individualists writing in the late 19th century who opposed the increasing power of the state and the rise of socialism, and were members of the Liberty and Property Defence League - Herbert Spencer (1820–1903), Auberon Herbert (1838-1906), Wordsworth Donisthorpe (1847-1914), and Thomas Mackay (1849–1912). They were the British counterpart of the French group of anti-socialist writers whose work we have added recently, namely Paul Leroy-Beaulieu (1843-1916), Yves Guyot (1843-1928), and Gustave de Molinari (1819-1912). The latest addition of the British school is:
    • Wordsworth Donisthorpe, Individualism: A System of Politics (1889) in HTML and facs. PDF
    • Wordsworth Donisthorpe, Law in a Free State (1895) in HTML and facs. PDF
  • two collections of essays edited by Thomas Mackay on behalf of the British "Liberty and Property Defense League" (founded 1882) to combat the rise of socialism, especially the Fabian Socialists:
    • A Plea for Liberty: An Argument Against Socialism and Socialistic Legislation (1891) [HTML] and
    • A Policy Of Free Exchange: the Economical and Social Aspects (1894) [HTML]
    • Australians should note the essays by Charles Fairfield on “State Socialism in the Antipodes” and J.W. Fortescue “State Socialism and the Collapse in Australia” since this new form of socialism was much admired by the British socialists of the day and seen as the path for the future. The pioneers of "state socialism" were Bismarck in the new German Reich after 1871 and the Australian colonies in the last decades of the 19th century
    • also in New Zealand: Rossignal and Steward, State socialism in New Zealand (1910) facs. PDF.
  • Lord Acton, "Introduction" to Machiavelli's The Prince (1891 ed.) in which he says that Machiavelli accurately describes the amoral and criminal behaviour of traditional leaders as well as the new leaders who were emerging in the nationalist movements in places like Italy and Germany in his own day. Acton describes this as "the emancipation of the State from the moral yoke."
  • the important book by L.T. Hobhouse which cemented the transition of "classical" (or radical) liberalism to what was called "new" or "social" liberalism, or what the Americans now call just "liberalism": Liberalism (1911) in HTML and facs. PDF.
  • an essay on "Vicesimus Knox (1752-1821): the Friend of Peace and the Foe of Despotism" along with several versions of his long pamphlet "The Spirit of Despotism" (1795), his sermon on "The Prospect of Perpetual and Universal Peace" (August 18 1793), and his introduction to a translation of Erasmus on peace, "Antipolemus; or, the Plea of Reason, Religion, and Humanity, Against War" (1795)
  • some of the political writings of the under-appreciated James Mill, father of J.S.:
  • Jeremy Bentham on rule by "disinterested experts" or "the fallacy of authority" (1824)
  • Herbert Spencer on the State and "Sanitary Supervision" (1851)


Australian Classical Liberals

Robert Menzies (1894-1978)

Blog Posts:

Recent Additions:

  • a new eBook of radical individualist and politician Bruce Smith (1851-1937) Liberty and Liberalism: A Protest against the growing Tendency toward undue Interference by the State (1887) - eBook HTML, eBook PDF, ePub, zipped collection
  • Some more on "liberalism" in Australia:
    • In 1991 the Australian Liberal Party under the leadership of the "dry" economist (i.e. slightly more "free marketish" than previous neo-liberals) John Hewson introduced a policy document ahead of the 1993 election to reform the Australian economy called stirringly "Fightback!". A central plank of the policy was the introduction of a new 15 percent GST (goods and services tax), along with the abolition of tariffs, and other reforms. Needless to say the voters fought back, quite rightly refusing to support the new tax, but not appreciating the need for the many other reforms in the "Fightback!" package. The Liberal Party lost the election and the Fightback! program disappeared from sight. Nevertheless a 10% GST was introduced by the LP in 2000. See the facs. PDF and the rough, uncorrected HTML version.
    • The "neo-liberalism" which emerged out of a meeting of French and German-speaking liberal economists in Paris in 1938 (the "Colloque Walter Lippman", in 1947 at Mont Pèlerin, and the ideas of "ordoliberalism" (state ordered liberalism) by Walter Eucken at the University of Freiburg (1937-54) was an attempt to create a more electorally attractive political force which would merge some aspects of individual private property and free markets ("liberalism") with considerable paternalistic government intervention ("neo-statism") and the welfare state ("neo-socialism"), as an opposing force to the rise of fascism, socialism (labourism), and communism. In Australia it took the form of the neo-liberalism, or rather "antipodean liberalism" (my deliberate play on words - meaning both "in the southern hemisphere" as well as "the direct opposite") of Robert Menzies (1894-1978). He would play a major role in the newly formed Liberal Party of Australia (1944) and would rule as PM from 1949-1966. He outlined his political views in a seres of 37 "fire-side chats" in the second half of 1942 known as "The Forgotten People" broadcasts. These important documents are hard to find so I have assembled the complete collection here [HTML]. They should be compared to the similar ideas about "The Forgotten Man" developed by the American radical liberal William Graham Sumner (1840-1910) in 1883.
  • more on state socialism in the Antipodes, this time in New Zealand but in favour of it: Rossignal and Steward, State Socialism in New Zealand (1910) facs. PDF.
  • Some more books by William Hearn:
    • The Government of England (1868) - facs. PDF
    • The Aryan Household (1878) - facs. PDF
    • The Theory of Legal Duty and Rights (1883) - facs. PDF
  • now a third -William Hearn (1826-1888) on Plutology or the Theory of the Efforts to Satisfy Human Wants (1864)
  • two examples of the very meagre offerings from Australian radical liberals / libertarians: the 19th century radical free trader Arthur Bruce Smith (1851–1937)
  • and the Workers Party platform from 1975.

[See the archive.]




American"Classical Liberalism"

[Randolph Bourne (1886-1918)]

The U.S. has never really had a "classical liberal" tradition. When the term "liberal" began to be used in the late 19th and early 20th centuries the tradition had dramatically changed into what was called "new" or "social" liberalism in England. Before then, CLs in America were known as "republicans", "Jeffersonian republicans," or "individualualists".

Recent Additions

  • Another work by the American lawyer and jurist James Coolidge Carter (1827-1905): Law: Its Origin, Growth and Function (1907) was originally given as a series of lectures at Harvard University. Carter strongly opposed the Benthamite idea that law was whatever the state said it was, and argued instead that it was and should be based upoon "custom" (or common law), which in turn was based upon the ideas people held about what was right and just. As people's ideas became more "liberal" so did the law. The section dealing with the folly of "sumptuary laws" like the prohibition of alcohol is noteworthy . In [HTML] and [facs. PDF]. Also eBook formats: HTML, PDF, ePub
    • others works by Carter online: The Provinces of the Written and the Unwritten Law (1889): [HTML] and [facs. PDF]
    • The Ideal and the Actual in the Law (1890): [HTML] and [facs. PDF]
  • a revised and updated version of my Selected Works of Lysander Spooner (1850-1886) which includes his most important writings on the abolition of slavery, political thought, and the Constitution (559 pp.) in standard HTML
  • Henry George, Protection or Free Trade: An Examination of the Tariff Question with Especial Regard to the Interests of Labor (1886). In the standard HTML format; eBook HTML and PDF and ePub; the zipped collection of files.
  • The libertarian philosopher and historian of ideas George Smith died recently (1949- April 2022). See this obituary by David Boaz from the Cato Institute which supported Smith in the writing of his last book The System of Liberty: Themes in the History of Classical Liberalism (Cambridge University Press, 2013). The numerous essays he wrote for Cato's <> website are listed here. I had the pleasure of lecturing alongside Smith at a number of IHS Summer Seminars and learnt a great deal from him. His interest in the works of the natural rights philosophers such as William Wallaston and Thomas Hodgskin encouraged me to read them. The latter in particular became a favorite of mine - his defence of Lockean natural rights against Benthamite utilitarianism is essential reading for radical liberals. George was also a passionate defender of Herbert Spencer and he encouraged me to read him more closely and look at him in another light. Spencer’s early work on Social Statics (1851) was a favorite of his and it has become one of mine. I have put many of their works online in tribute to George, most recently this one by Hodgskin on Naval Discipline (1813). Hodgskin’s outrage at the way “impressed” (i.e. conscripted) seamen in the British Navy were treated started him on his exploration and defence of individual liberty.
    • William Wollaston, The Religion of Nature delineated (1722) [HTML and PDF]
    • Thomas Hodgskin, An Essay on Naval Discipline (1813) [HTML and PDF]
    • Thomas Hodgskin, The Natural and Artificial Right of Property Contrasted (1832) [HTML and PDF]
    • Herbert Spencer, Social Statics (1851) [HTML and PDF]
  • the Cato Institute "published" in 2017 a book of 10 esssays George Smith wrote for <> Self Interest and Social Order in Classical Liberalism (Cato, 2017). I hope they do some more. I have it online here in text PDF. Or from the Cato Institute website. Its contents are:
    1. Political Philosophy and Justice
    2. David Hume
    3. David Hume on Justice
    4. Thomas Hobbes
    5. The Selfish System
    6. Joseph Butler
    7. Joseph Butler, Continued
    8. BernardMandeville
    9. Mandeville on the Benefits of Vice
    10. Bernard Mandeville vs. Francis Hutcheson
  • since I put online Ambrose Bierce's Fantastic Fables (1899), his reworking of Aesop's Fables, I also had to put online his cynical, witty, sometimes absurd, and very libertarian The Devil's Dictionary (1911), which is the literary equivalent of William Graham Sumner's scathing critic of "plutocracy" and the corruption of America during the "Progressive" era. [HTML and facs. PDF].
  • The American radical journalist and essayist Randolph S. Bourne (1886-1918) was a vociferous critic of America's entry into WW1 and the submissive, herd-like acceptance of this fact by the American public. This anthology, Untimely Papers (1919), put together after his death in 1918, contains the brilliant essay "The War and the Intelletuals" (1917) in which he lambasts the intellectual class for rallying around the State to support the war effort, and his unfinished essay on "The State" in which he argues that "war is the health of the state". HTML and facs. PDF. Given his use of "health" metaphors, references to "herd-mentaility" and behaviour, and the hounding of dissenters, it has considerable contemporary relevance in the current "war" against covid and the role of the state and the intellectual class in making this possible.
    • even before the war broke out in Europe Bourne wrote a pamphlet attacking The Tradition of War (June 1914) for the American Association for International Conciliation [HTML and facs. PDF]
    • shortly after the U.S. entered the war in April 1917 Bourne wrote the pamphlet The War and the Intellectuals (June 1917) was published by the American Union against Militarism. [facs. PDF and Union statement of principles]
  • I have another very interesting piece by the American jurist James C. Carter entitled The Ideal and the Actual in the Law (1890) [HTML] to add to his The Provinces of the Written and the Unwritten Law (1889) [HTML]. Carter argues for the idea that judges do not "make the law" but rather "discover" it by observing common practice and custom around them. Legal change occurs at the margin when judges adapt or slightly modify current jural practice. The role of the legislature in reforming the law is thus minimal at best.
  • Condy Raguet was also a staunch critic of government fiat paper money in his Treatise on Currency and Banking (1839).
  • We now have a third representative of the 19th century American free trade movement online to add to Henry George (1839-1897) and William Graham Sumner (1840-1910), namely Condy Raguet (1784-1842). Their arch intellectual foe was Alexander Hamilton (1757-1804) who defended government funded infra-structure projects and high tariffs (the so-called "American System") in his Report on Manufactures (1791) and whose ideas dominated American economic policy for over a century. Why hasn't anybody made a musical about Condy Raguet? I wrote a screenplay about the life and times of Fréréric Bastiat. (with images)
    1. Condy Raguet, The Principles of Free Trade (1835)
    2. William Graham Sumner, Protectionism. The -Ism which Teaches that Waste makes Wealth (1885)
    3. Henry George, Protection or Free Trade (1886)
  • William Graham Sumner (1840-1910) spent much of his life attacking the fallacies and sophisms of tariffs and the system of protectionism in the United States. He was active in the rather small American free trade movement for whom he gave lectures and wrote pamphlets. In his approach and his rhetoric he was very much in the tradition of Frédéric Bastiat (1801-1850) referring to the “sophisms” of protectionism and the “plunder” which benefited some vested interests at the expense of ordinary consumers and tax-payers (his “forgotten” men and women). See his Lectures on the History of Protection in the United States (1877), Protectionism. The -Ism which Teaches that Waste makes Wealth (1885), and his overview of free trade “Liberté des Échanges” (1891) which was never translated into English.
  • England had Herbert Spencer (1820-1903); France had Gustave de Molinari (1819-1912); and America had William Graham Sumner (1840-1910). All three did pioneering work in the emerging discipline of “sociology”, were radical classical liberals (libertarians), and were active in popularizing their ideas via journalism. Sumner was a professor of sociology at Yale University who wrote on free trade and protection, sound money and banking, and was an outspoken member of the American Anti-Imperialist League. His work on classical liberal class analysis should also be mentioned, where he championed the interests of “The Forgotten Man and Woman” who paid the taxes which made it possible for the various vested interest groups, both large (plutocrats and party bosses) and small (those who sought government jobs), to enjoy their privileged position. Sumner also wrote several works against the theory and practice of socialism. In his view the great clash of the future would be between socialists from below and plutocrats from above, with the “forgotten” man and woman caught in the middle.We have online four volumes of his collected essays, his major treatise on sociology, and several other works:
  • two speeches by the late 19th century New York legal theorist James Coolidge Carter, (1827-1905) who was a strong defender of private, judge-made law (often "unwritten") vs. state-made legislation and codes of law:
    • The Provinces of the Written and the Unwritten Law (1889) in HTML and facs. PDF
    • The Ideal and the Actual in the Law (1890) in HTML and facs. PDF
  • The Selected Works of Lysander Spooner (1850-1886) consists of 14 pamphlets and essays Spooner wrote on the burning issues of slavery and its abolition and to what extent an individual owed allegiance to the constitution which was a document which no living person had agreed to and signed. It also includes his chapter on "Vices are not Crimes" (1875) which is a radical critique of so-called "victimless crime" laws
  • a work by the great 19thC American defender of free trade, Henry George (1839-1897), Protection or Free Trade (1886) in HTML and facs. PDF
  • Rothbard's complete Libertarian Forum (1969-1984) in HTML (and thus properly searchable! - I was interested in finding the first use of the term "anarcho-capitalism" and "free market anarchism")
  • Rothbard, "Economic Determinism, Ideology, And The American Revolution" (1974). A paper delivered at the Libertarian Scholars Conference, Oct. 28, 1974 in New York City. On class and ideas.